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Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.

Updated Articles and Resources

By Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.

    Updated Articles and Resources
    • What Causes Brain Freeze? Created: Thursday, February 18, 2010 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      If you've ever experienced a sudden stabbing pain in your forehead when eating ice cream or enjoying a cool drink then you know what brain freeze is. Do you know what causes brain freeze or how you can stop the pain?
    • Why Are Flamingos Pink? Created: Monday, January 11, 2010 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Have you ever wondered why flamingos are pink or orange? You've probably heard it has something to do with what flamingos eat, but do you know what exactly it is that produces the color?
    • Buffers Created: Friday, March 27, 2009 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Buffers are an important concept in acid-base chemistry. Here's a look at what buffers are and how they function." itemprop="description">> Tuesday, February 16, 2010 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      What do you think Olympic medals are made of? Are the gold medals really gold? They used to be solid gold, but now Olympic gold medals are made from something else. Here's a look at the metal compo...
    • Why Does Ice Float? Created: Tuesday, July 26, 2005 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Learn about hydrogen bonding and density to understand why ice floats.
    • Acid-Base Indicators Created: Sunday, December 05, 2010 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Learn about what an acid-base indicator is and choose an acid-base indicator from this comprehensive table of acid-base indicators, based on pH range or color change." itemif expr="$zTP='t3'" --> i...
    • Types of Solids Created: Tuesday, May 29, 2012 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      There are 6 main types of solids, each characterized by specific properties and structures. Here is a look at the main types of solids." itemprop="description" Tuesday, December 02, 2008 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Perfume is a classic gift, but it's even better if it is a scent that you made yourself, especially if you package it in a beautiful bottle. Perfume you make yourself is free from synthetic chemicals and is fully customized to your personal taste. Here's how to make your own perfume.
    • How To Make Oobleck Created: Wednesday, April 11, 2007 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Learn how to make Oobleck, a type of slime that has properties of both liquids and solids.
    • What Is a Pure Substance? Created: Tuesday, September 20, 2011 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      You may have wondered what is meant by the term "pure substance". Here's a look at what a pure substance is and how you can tell if a substance is pure or not.
    • White Gold Created: Saturday, January 15, 2011 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      White gold is a popular metal for jewelry. Have you ever wondered what white gold is made of? Here's a look at the chemical composition of white gold and some of the properties of white gold."
    • Iron Facts Created: Thursday, July 26, 2007 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Get periodic table facts on the chemical and physical properties of the element iron.
    • BHA and BHT Created: Sunday, October 18, 2009 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are added to many foods to prevent fat spoilage. This article describes what BHA and BHT are, what they do, and how they do it. There is a fairly lengthy list of references because there is controversy over the health effects of BHA, BHT, and other additives.
    • Difference Between Atomic Mass and Mass Number Created: Sunday, March 06, 2011 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      There is a difference between the meanings of atomic mass and mass number. One is the average weight of an element and the other is the total number of nucleons in the atom's nucleus.
    • Strength of Acids and Bases Created: Wednesday, January 31, 2007 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Learn about strong and weak acids and bases. Get definitions and examples of each type." itemprop="description"> Friday, October 29, 2010 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Elements may be classified as either metals or nonmetals, based on their properties. Here's a look at the differences between the metals and nonmetals.
    • Slime Recipes Created: Saturday, March 28, 2009 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      There's more than one way to make slime. Actually, there are lots of different recipes! Here are some of the best recipes for different types of slime, from normal slimy slime to eerie glow-in-the-...
    • Best Crystals for Beginners Created: Saturday, March 07, 2009 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Have you ever wanted to try growing your own crystals, but unsure where to start? Growing crystals is a fun activity that doesn't have to be difficult. This list contains twelve of the best crystal...
    • How To Bend Water with Static Electricity Created: Tuesday, June 05, 2007 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Use static electricity to bend a stream of flowing water. This is an easy science activity that illustrates how opposite electrical charges attract each other.
    • Salt and Vinegar Crystals Created: Friday, March 06, 2009 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Salt and vinegar crystals are easy-to-grow non-toxic crystals that you can grow in a rainbow of colors. This crystal growing project is especially good for kids or beginners looking for quick and easy crystals.
    • Gemstone List Created: Sunday, April 06, 2008 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      This alphabetical list of gemstones includes the mineral names of the gemstones as well as links to photos of the gems.
    • Element Symbols Created: Saturday, March 10, 2007 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Learn the one and two letter symbols for the chemical elements.
    • What Is a Chemical Equation? Created: Thursday, March 31, 2011 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      A chemical equation is a type of relation you will encounter every day in chemistry. Here's a look at what a chemical equation is and some examples of chemical equations.
    • Molecular Formula and Empirical Formula Created: Thursday, January 20, 2011 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Here is a look at what the molecular formula and empirical formula are and steps for finding the molecular formula and empirical formula.
    • Why Is Water a Polar Molecule? Created: Tuesday, January 17, 2012 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Water is a polar molecule. Here is the explanation for why water is a polar molecule and why water is a polar solvent.
    • Does Eating Turkey Make You Sleepy? Created: Wednesday, November 22, 2006 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Find out why everyone wants to take a nap after the big Thanksgiving Day feast. Let's talk turkey and learn about L-tryptophan and carbohydrate metabolism." itemprop="descrTP='t3'" --> itemprop="de...
    • 8th Grade Science Fair Projects Created: Wednesday, January 09, 2008 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Get ideas for 8th grade science fair projects. These are experiments and topics suitable for upper middle school level science fair projects.
    • How Does Borax Clean? Created: Thursday, April 26, 2007 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Borax is the common name of a natural mineral compound: sodium borate decahydrate. Learn about the chemistry of borax, its common household uses and information on using borax safely.
    • Anion Definition Created: Wednesday, December 10, 2008 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Anion definition, as used in chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics." itemprop="description"> Saturday, July 09, 2011 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Fermentation is a process used to produce wine, beer, yogurt and other products. Here's a look at the chemical process that occurs during fermentation.
    • Mohs Scale of Hardness Created: Saturday, July 21, 2007 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      The Mohs Scale of Hardness measures how well a substance resists scratching by another material. You can use this scale to test the hardness of rocks, minerals, and crystals, to help identify them.
    • Solubility Definition Created: Sunday, March 09, 2008 Updated: Tuesday, April 15, 2014
      Solubility definition, as used in chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics." itemprop="description">