Chemistry: Most Popular Articles
Baking powder and baking soda both are used to make baked goods rise. Learn the difference between baking powder and baking soda and how to make ingredient substitutions if you run out of one and not the other.
Test your general science knowledge with this fun multiple choice quiz.
Baking powder and baking soda both are leavening agents that help baked goods to rise. They are not the same chemical, but you can substitute one for another in recipes. Here's how.
Chemical changes occur when chemical reactions between substances form new products. Get examples of 10 chemical changes in everyday life.
Physical changes involve a new form or shape of matter, but no chemical reaction. This is a list of 10 examples of physical changes.
A little chemistry can add a lot of ghastly, ghostly effect to your Halloween celebration. Here's a look at some of the top Halloween projects you can do that apply your command of chemistry.
Percent error or percentage error is the difference between an approximate or measured value and an exact or known value. Here is how to calculate percent error.
Have you ever wondered why hair turns gray as you get older and whether there is something you can do to prevent it? Here's what happens.
Your carved pumpkin or Halloween jack o lantern doesn't have to rot or mold before Halloween! Here is how to preserve a jack o lantern so that it will last for weeks instead of days.
Heterogeneous and homogeneous refer to mixtures of materials in chemistry. Learn about the difference between these mixtures and get examples of each type.
Calculating concentration is a basic skill needed by chemistry students. This is a list of steps and examples to calculate the concentration of chemical solutions in percent composition by mass, volume percent, molarity, molality, and normality. Make dilutions by adding the correct volume of solvent to make a new solution.
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If you take chemistry, you need to know about moles. Find out what a mole is and why this unit is used in chemistry.
There are seven elements that form homonuclear diatomic molecules or simple molecules with their own atoms. This is a list of the 7 diatomic elements.
You can make a glow in the dark pumpkin using a common non-toxic chemical. The jack-o-lantern doesn't require carving and it looks really spooky!
The gas constant or R is an important constant in the ideal gas law. This is the definition and value of the gas constant.
Lab reports are an essential part of all laboratory courses and a significant part of your grade. Here's a format for a lab report you can use if you aren't sure what to write or need an explanation of what to include in the different parts of the report.
Take a multiple choice quiz to test yourself about general knowledge in chemistry.
This is an interactive periodic table of the elements. Click on an element symbol to get detailed facts for each element.
Although DNA and RNA both carry genetic information, there are quite a few differences between them. This is a comparison of the differences between DNA versus RNA, including a quick summary and a detailed table of the differences.
Chemical and physical changes relate to matter properties. Find out what chemical and physical changes are, get examples, and learn how to tell them apart.
The difference between independent and dependent variables in a scientific experiment is which variable is being measured. Here's an explanation of how to tell these critical variables apart.
Here are some examples of physical changes and chemical changes, along with an explanation of how you can tell physical and chemical changes apart.
Here's a list of all of the chemical elements of the periodic table ordered by increasing atomic number. The names and element symbols are provided.
If you don't have buttermilk, it's easy to apply a little kitchen chemistry to make it from regular milk. Here are 5 simple buttermilk substitute recipes to try.
Which chemical element are you? Technically speaking, you mostly consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but which element best represents your personality? Take this fun multiple choice quiz to find out.
The atomic mass or atomic weight of an element is a weighted average of all the element's isotopes based on their natural abundance. It is simple to calculate the atomic mass of an element with these steps.
Chemistry happens in the real world, not just a lab. Here are 10 examples of chemical reactions in everyday life.
Distillation is one method of water purification. Is distilled water safe to drink or as good for you as other types of water? The answer depends on a few different factors.
Mass percent composition of a molecule shows the amount each element in a molecule contributes to the total molecular mass. This step by step tutorial will show the method to determine the mass percent composition of a molecule.
Borax is a common household and commercial chemical. Here's a look at what borax is, some facts about borax and how you can get borax.
Cations and anions are both ions. The difference between a cation and an anion is the net electrical charge of the ion. Here are the details on the difference and how to tell them apart.
The periodic table of the elements contains a lot of useful information. Here is how to use a periodic table to gather information about the elements.
Ionic and covalent bonds hold molecules together. Learn to distinguish between ionic and covalent bonds, and determine whether a bond will be polar or nonpolar.
This is the definition of an independent variable, with examples. An independent variable is one of the key factors in a scientific experiment.
The Bohr Model has an atom consisting of a small, positively-charged nucleus orbited by negatively-charged electrons. Here's a closer look at the Bohr Model, which is sometimes called the Rutherford-Bohr Model.
The chemical volcano is the classic science fair project. Baking soda and vinegar combine to produce carbon dioxide, which builds up pressure in the center to cause an eruption of foamy lava. You can even color the lava to resemble a real volcanic eruption. This step-by-step recipe will show you how to make your own baking soda volcano.
At what temperature does water boil? What determines the boiling point of water? Here's the answer to this common question.
Organic compounds and inorganic compounds form the basis for chemistry. Here is a look at the difference between organic and inorganic compounds, plus examples of each type.
When you mix chemicals, you may get a chemical reaction. Learn about the different types of chemical reactions and get examples of the reaction types.
This multiple choice quiz covers ionic compound nomenclature. Test your ability to name ionic compounds and to write the formula of ionic compounds from their names.
This worked example problem shows how to convert the number grams of a molecule to the number of moles of the molecule.
Have you heard about Mole Day? Here's a look at what Mole Day is, when it is observed, and what you can do to celebrate this chemistry holiday.
Get Mole Day jokes and other Mole Day humor for Mole Day (October 23 or June 2).
Have you ever wondered how much of your body is water? The percentage of water varies according to your age and gender. Here's a look at how much water is inside you.
This is how to make the best Halloween jack o lantern. This jack o lantern features a long lasting flamethrower tower of flame, plus you can customize the color of the fire.
This is a list of some of the most common polyatomic ions. It is worth committing the polyatomic ions to memory, including their molecular formulas and ionic charge.
Isotopes are one form an element can take. This is the definition of an isotope, with examples.
Here's an explanation of what STP is in chemistry and why it is useful, particularly when dealing with gases.
The empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest whole number ratio between the elements. The molecular formula is the actual whole number ratio between the elements. This step by step tutorial shows how to calculate the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound.
These are the strong acids. There are only six strong acids, so you might want to commit the list of strong acids to memory.
Take a multiple choice quiz to test yourself about general knowledge in science.
Balancing chemical equations is a key chemistry skill. Use these step by step instructions to write and balance chemical equations.
Learn about endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions and get instructions to perform your own hot and cold chemistry experiments.
The reaction between baking soda and vinegar generates carbon dioxide gas, which is used in chemical volcanoes and other projects. Here is a look at the reaction between baking soda and vinegar and the equation for the reaction.
Celsius and Kelvin are two important temperature scales. It is easy to convert Celsius to Kelvin with these steps.
Basics of Acids and Bases Quiz - Test Your Chemistry Knowledge
Get examples of types of solids, liquids, and gases and learn about the transitions or phase changes between them.
Ball point pen ink is not a something that you can usually remove with simple soap and water, but there is an easy and inexpensive way to remove pen ink from surfaces or clothing. Here is what you do.
Apple seeds do contain a small amount of cyanide, which is a lethal poison, but humans are protected from it in several ways.
Need crystal meth facts? Learn what crystal meth is, why people takeit, how it's made, and what risks are associated with using methamphetamine.
The elements are the basis for all matter. Learn the one and two letter symbols for the chemical elements of the periodic table using this handy list.
Mixing bleach and ammonia is extremely dangerous, since toxic vapors will be produced. The primary toxic chemical formed by the reaction is chloramine vapor, with a potential for hydrazine formation. Here's a look at the chemical reactions involved in mixing bleach and ammonia, as well as some first aid advice if you accidentally become exposed to a bleach and ammonia mixture.
These are examples of covalent bonds and covalent compounds.
Ionic compounds form when elements share electrons. Here are examples of ionic bonds and ionic compounds.
This is an overview of combustion reactions, including what they are, the general format for the reaction, and examples of combustion reactions.
Get step-by-step instructions for making classic slime.
Before performing chemical reactions, it is helpful to know how much product will be produced with given quantities of reactants. This is known as the theoretical yield. Here's how to calculate it.
Here is a look at what the molecular formula and empirical formula are and steps for finding the molecular formula and empirical formula.
Avogadro's number is used in chemistry calculations. Here is a definition of Avogadro's number and its value.
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Have you ever wondered what pH stands for or where the term originated? Here is the answer to the question and a look at the history of the pH scale.
There is a difference between the meanings of atomic mass and mass number. One is the average weight of an element and the other is the total number of nucleons in the atom's nucleus. Here's how to keep them straight.
This is a worked example problem showing how to calculate mass percent composition.
Learn how to distinguish between a chemical property and a physical property of matter.
A pure substance or chemical substance is a material that is homogeneous and has constant properties throughout the sample. Here are examples of pure substances.
Here is an explanation of what chemical properties are, plus several examples of chemical properties of matter.
Ions, Isotopes, & Atoms Quiz - Test Your Chemistry Knowledge
Molarity is a unit of concentration measuring the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution. The strategy to solving molarity problems is fairly simple. This outlines a straightforward method to calculate molarity of a solution.
This is a classic recipe for homemade slime.
Variables are an important part of science projects and experiments. Here is an explanation of what a variable is and a description of the different types of variables you'll encounter in science.
Groups of Elements - This is an interactive periodic table of the elements.
There's more than one way to make slime. Actually, there are lots of different recipes! Here are some of the best recipes for different types of slime, from normal slimy slime to eerie glow-in-the-dark slime.
Download or print these PNG and PDF printable periodic tables to help work chemistry problems or to predict properties of the elements.
This is a list of the solubility rules for ionic solids in water. While it's a good idea to memorize them, the list is a good reference to use.
Test your periodic table knowledge with this fun multiple choice quiz.
Use chemistry to make a bouncing polymer ball, then alter the procedure to see the effect the changes have on the characteristics of the bouncing ball.
Here is how to define anode and cathode and how to remember which is which.
See how elements are organized into element groups in the periodic table. Page 2.
Water is a polar molecule. Here is the explanation for why water is a polar molecule and why water is a polar solvent.
The density of water is related to its specific gravity. The density is the weight of the water per its unit volume, which depends on the temperature of the water. While you can round the density to 1 gram per milliliter, here are more precise values for you.
Strong bases are bases which completely dissociate in water. Here is a list of the most common strong bases.
List of materials that glow under ultraviolet or black light.
There are several ways you can make homemade clay for modeling, making ornaments, and for other projects and crafts. Here are several clay recipes, including a refrigerator clay, a clay you bake to harden, one you coat for a glossy finish, and one that works up and stays pliable much like store-bought modeling clay.
It's possible to make dry ice at home. Here are instructions and safety information on how to do it.
Learn how to remove fluoride from drinking water.
Learn about the difference between the control group and the experimental group in a scientific experiment.
Can you recognize the elements when you see them? Here's a quiz that tests your ability to identify an element based on its appearance.
Here are examples of a scientific hypothesis and how to improve a hypothesis to use it for an experiment.
What is the freezing point of water or the melting point of water? Are the freezing point and melting point the same? Are there any factors that affect the freezing point of water? Here's a look at the answers to these common questions.
Here is an acids and bases example problem involving titration. A base of known concentration is used to neutralize an unknown concentration of an acid.
This is a collection of printable worksheets to practice balancing equations. The printable worksheets are provided in pdf format with separate answer keys.
Oxidation and reduction reactions involve an exchange of electrons between reactants. Here is how to tell which reactant was oxidized and which was reduced.
Practice balancing chemical equations with this multiple choice quiz.
This is a list of things that glow in the dark, including objects, chemicals and products that are known to glow via phosphorescence or glow under a black light from fluorescence.
Understanding acids and bases is important for grasping chemistry concepts. Here's an introduction to acids and bases, with definitions for key acid and base terms.
Elements may be classified as either metals or nonmetals, based on their properties. Here's a look at the differences between the metals and nonmetals.
The octet rule states that elements gain or lose electrons to attain an electron configuration of the nearest noble gas. Here is an explanation of how that works and why elements follow the octet rule.
Most elements are metals. This group includes the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, basic metals, and rare earth elements.
Most of the chemical elements are metals of one variety or another. Learn about some of the properties common to this large element group.
Find out what alum is and the uses of alum.
This is an explanation of the difference between accuracy and precision.
Here are the names and formulas of some of the common acids and bases.
Get information about the common characteristics of the nonmetals.
A scientific experiment may be designed with a control group. Here's a look at what a control group is and how it helps increase the validity of an experiment.
Fermentation is a process used to produce wine, beer, yogurt and other products. Here's a look at the chemical process that occurs during fermentation.
Want to do a chemistry projects but don't have your own laboratory? Here is a collection of experiments using common materials you have at home.
Learn about the different types of chemical bonds and the forces that affect the way electrons are shared.
Mixing bleach and vinegar is a bad idea. Toxic chlorine gas is released, which essentially serves as a way to wage chemical warfare on yourself. Many people mix bleach and vinegar, knowing it's dangerous, but either underestimating the risk or else hoping for increased cleaning power. Here's what you should know about mixing bleach and vinegar, before you try it.
The halogens are a specific group of nonmetals with some distinctive properties. Get facts about the location and characteristics of the halogens.
Are you ready for some spooky science? These projects and experiments are just right for Halloween. Make your holiday educational as well as fun!
Learn how to assign oxidation numbers to keep track of the distribution of electrons during a chemical reaction.
The normality of a solution is the gram equivalent weight of a solute per liter of solution. Here's an example of how to calculate the normality of a solution.
Review how to calculate pH and what pH means with respect to hydrogen ion concentration, acids, and bases.
Get ideas for 8th grade science fair projects. These are experiments and topics suitable for upper middle school level science fair projects.
Atomic Mass definition, as used in chemistry and other physical sciences.
Learn how to make a smoke bomb. This is the list of materials required for making your own smoke bomb.
Science fair and research projects apply the scientific method. Here's an explanation of the scientific method and how the scientific method is used.
The mole is an important unit in chemistry. There is the mole definition, as used in chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics.
Is it really possible to drink to much water? Learn about water intoxication and hyponatremia.
This is a periodic table of the metals, metalloids, and nonmetals and a description of these major element groups.
Here are the properties shared by the ionic compounds.
Law of Conservation of Mass definition, as used in chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics.
If you've ever had a drink, you know it sent you to the bathroom, but do you know why alcohol makes you pee? Here's the chemistry behind the answer.
Learn about strong and weak acids and bases. Get definitions and examples of each type.
This is a summary of the past and present nomenclature or naming conventions for ionic compounds. The major prefixes and suffixes are explained and examples of their use are provded.
This is a list of chemical reactions that are endothermic reactions.
Atomic Structure Quiz - Test Your Chemistry Knowledge
Saline solution refers to a salt solution, which you can prepare yourself using readily available materials. The solution can be used as a disinfectant, sterile rinse, or for labwork.
The activity series of metals is an empirical tool used to predict products and reactivity of metals with water and acids in replacement reactions and ore extraction.
Water is known as the universal solvent. Here is an explanation of why water is called the universal solvent and what properties make it good at dissolving other substances.
A dependent variable is the variable being tested in a scientific experiment.
Test your general science knowledge of 9th grade science with this fun online multiple choice quiz.
Learn about chemical composition of the Earth's air. Percentages of the most common compounds are given, according to volume.
Get ideas for great high school science projects. These are projects targeted from the 9-12 grade educational level.
Learn about natural ways to repel mosquitoes and develop strategies to reduce your exposure to them.
Learn about the characteristics and common properties of the transition metals.
pH is a measure of the acidity of a substance. Here's a table of the pH of several common chemicals.
Learn about the difference between a scientific law, hypothesis, and theory.
Find out why leaves change color in the fall. Learn about the different pigments found in leaves and how bright autumn foliage is produced.