Chemistry: Most Popular Articles
Baking powder and baking soda both are used to make baked goods rise. Learn the difference between baking powder and baking soda and how to make ingredient substitutions if you run out of one and not the other.
Baking powder and baking soda are leavening agents that help baked goods to rise. Here is exactly how to substitute baking powder and baking soda.
Test your general science knowledge with this fun multiple choice quiz.
Chemical changes occur when chemical reactions between substances form new products. Get examples of 10 chemical changes in everyday life.
Physical changes involve a new form or shape of matter, but no chemical reaction. This is a list of 10 examples of physical changes.
Atom Basics Quiz - Test Your Chemistry Knowledge: structure quiz chemistry knowledge model of the atom question quiz science fundamentals
What is the freezing point of water or the melting point of water? Are the freezing point and melting point the same? Are there any factors that affect the freezing point of water? Here's a look at the answers to these common questions.
There are seven elements that form homonuclear diatomic molecules or simple molecules with their own atoms. This is a list of the 7 diatomic elements.
Percent error or percentage error is the difference between an approximate or measured value and an exact or known value. Here is how to calculate percent error.
The gas constant or R is an important constant in the ideal gas law. This is the definition and value of the gas constant.
Calculating concentration is a basic skill needed by chemistry students. This is a list of steps and examples to calculate the concentration of chemical solutions in percent composition by mass, volume percent, molarity, molality, and normality.
Heterogeneous and homogeneous refer to mixtures of materials in chemistry. Learn about the difference between these mixtures and get examples of each type.
Take a multiple choice quiz to test yourself about general knowledge in chemistry.
Chemistry happens in the real world, not just a lab. Here are 10 examples of chemical reactions in everyday life.
The chemical volcano is the classic science fair project. This step-by-step recipe will show you how to make your own baking soda volcano.
Which chemical element are you? Technically speaking, you mostly consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but which element best represents your personality? Take this fun multiple choice quiz to find out.
At what temperature does water boil? What determines the boiling point of water? Here's the answer to this common question.
Ionic and covalent bonds hold molecules together. Learn to distinguish between ionic and covalent bonds, and determine whether a bond will be polar or nonpolar.
Here are some examples of physical changes and chemical changes, along with an explanation of how you can tell physical and chemical changes apart.
The difference between independent and dependent variables in a scientific experiment is which variable is being measured. Here's an explanation of how to tell these critical variables apart.
The reaction between baking soda and vinegar generates carbon dioxide gas, used in chemical volcanoes. Here is the equation for the reaction between baking soda and vinegar.
Organic compounds and inorganic compounds form the basis for chemistry. Here is a look at the difference between organic and inorganic compounds, plus examples of each type.
This is an interactive periodic table of the elements. Click on an element symbol to get detailed facts for each element.
Cations and anions are both ions. The difference between a cation and an anion is the net electrical charge of the ion. Here are the details on the difference and how to tell them apart.
Here's an explanation of what STP is in chemistry and why it is useful, particularly when dealing with gases.
Although DNA and RNA both carry genetic information, there are quite a few differences between them. This is a comparison of the differences between DNA versus RNA, including a quick summary and a detailed table of the differences.
Borax is a common household and commercial chemical. Here's a look at what borax is, some facts about borax and how you can get borax.
Take a multiple choice quiz to test yourself about general knowledge in science.
Get examples of types of solids, liquids, and gases and learn about the transitions or phase changes between them.
Distillation is one method of water purification. Is distilled water safe to drink or as good for you as other types of water? The answer depends on a few different factors.
Lab reports are an essential part of all laboratory courses and a significant part of your grade. Here's a format for a lab report you can use if you aren't sure what to write or need an explanation of what to include in the different parts of the report.
Here's a list of all of the chemical elements of the periodic table ordered by increasing atomic number. The names and element symbols are provided.
Have you ever wondered how much of your body is water? The percentage of water varies according to your age and gender. Here's a look at how much water is inside you.
If you don't have buttermilk, it's easy to apply a little kitchen chemistry to make it from regular milk. Here are 5 simple buttermilk recipes to try.
When you mix chemicals, you may get a chemical reaction. Learn about the different types of chemical reactions and get examples of the reaction types.
This multiple choice quiz covers ionic compound nomenclature. Test your ability to name ionic compounds and to write the formula of ionic compounds from their names.
Learn about endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions and get instructions to perform your own hot and cold chemistry experiments.
This worked example problem shows how to convert the number grams of a molecule to the number of moles of the molecule.
This is the definition of an independent variable, with examples. An independent variable is one of the key factors in a scientific experiment.
Balancing chemical equations is a key chemistry skill. Use these step by step instructions to write and balance chemical equations.
This is a collection of printable worksheets to practice balancing equations. The printable worksheets are provided in pdf format with separate answer keys.
Mixing bleach and ammonia is extremely dangerous, since toxic vapors will be produced. The primary toxic chemical formed by the reaction is chloramine vapor, with a potential for hydrazine formation. Here's a look at the chemical reactions involved in mixing bleach and ammonia, as well as some first aid advice if you accidentally become exposed to a bleach and ammonia mixture.
These are examples of covalent bonds and covalent compounds.
Use chemistry to make a bouncing polymer ball, then alter the procedure to see the effect the changes have on the characteristics of the bouncing ball.
Chemical and physical changes relate to matter properties. Find out what chemical and physical changes are, get examples, and learn how to tell them apart.
Celsius and Kelvin are two important temperature scales. It is easy to convert Celsius to Kelvin with these steps.
Test your periodic table knowledge with this fun multiple choice quiz.
This is a list of some of the most common polyatomic ions. It is worth committing the polyatomic ions to memory, including their molecular formulas and ionic charge.
This is an overview of combustion reactions, including what they are, the general format for the reaction, and examples of combustion reactions.
Mass percent composition of a molecule shows the amount each element in a molecule contributes to the total molecular mass. This step by step tutorial will show the method to determine the mass percent composition of a molecule.
Need crystal meth facts? Learn what crystal meth is, why people takeit, how it's made, and what risks are associated with using methamphetamine.
Apple seeds do contain a small amount of cyanide, which is a lethal poison, but humans are protected from it in several ways.
Have you ever wondered what pH stands for or where the term originated? Here is the answer to the question and a look at the history of the pH scale.
Fermentation is a process used to produce wine, beer, yogurt and other products. Here's a look at the chemical process that occurs during fermentation.
Chemical Bonds & Compounds Chemistry Quiz: electron dot structures ionic covalent bonds lewis electron dot structures chemistry quiz chemistry quizzes
It's easy to grow your own sparkling clear or colored borax crystal snowflakes. Here's what you do.
Ionic compounds form when elements share electrons. Here are examples of ionic bonds and ionic compounds.
The octet rule states that elements gain or lose electrons to attain an electron configuration of the nearest noble gas. Here is an explanation of how that works and why elements follow the octet rule.
Basics of Acids and Bases Quiz - Test Your Chemistry Knowledge
Here is how to define anode and cathode and how to tell them apart.
Find out why everyone wants to take a nap after the big Thanksgiving Day feast. Let's talk turkey and learn about L-tryptophan and carbohydrate metabolism.
Ball point pen ink is not a something that you can usually remove with simple soap and water, but there is an easy and inexpensive way to remove pen ink from surfaces or clothing. Here is what you do.
Here are the properties shared by the ionic compounds.
The elements are the basis for all matter. Learn the one and two letter symbols for the chemical elements of the periodic table using this handy list.
These are the strong acids. There are only six strong acids, so you might want to commit the list of strong acids to memory.
The atomic mass or atomic weight of an element is a weighted average of all the element's isotopes based on their natural abundance. It is simple to calculate the atomic mass of an element with these steps.
The empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest whole number ratio between the elements. The molecular formula is the actual whole number ratio between the elements. This step by step tutorial shows how to calculate the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound.
Most elements are metals. This group includes the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, basic metals, and rare earth elements.
Practice balancing chemical equations with this multiple choice quiz.
Do you understand the trends of periodic table periodicity? Here's a ten question multiple choice quiz you can take to test your periodic table knowledge.
Groups of Elements - This is an interactive periodic table of the elements.
Elements may be classified as either metals or nonmetals, based on their properties. Here's a look at the differences between the metals and nonmetals.
Can you recognize the elements when you see them? Here's a quiz that tests your ability to identify an element based on its appearance.
There are several ways you can make homemade clay for modeling, making ornaments, and for other projects and crafts. Here are several clay recipes, including a refrigerator clay, a clay you bake to harden, one you coat for a glossy finish, and one that works up and stays pliable much like store-bought modeling clay.
Isotopes are one form an element can take. This is the definition of an isotope, with examples.
A pure substance or chemical substance is a material that is homogeneous and has constant properties throughout the sample. Here are examples of pure substances.
There are several branches of chemistry. Here is a list of the main branches of chemistry, with an overview of what each branch of chemistry studies.
The Bohr Model has an atom consisting of a small, positively-charged nucleus orbited by negatively-charged electrons. Here's a closer look at the Bohr Model, which is sometimes called the Rutherford-Bohr Model.
Variables are an important part of science projects and experiments. Here is an explanation of what a variable is and a description of the different types of variables you'll encounter in science.
Molarity is a unit of concentration measuring the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution. Here is how to calculate molarity of a solution.
Here is a list of the 5 main branches of chemistry, along with an explanation of what each of the branches studies.
Here are examples of a scientific hypothesis and how to improve a hypothesis to use it for an experiment.
Want to do a chemistry projects but don't have your own laboratory? Here is a collection of experiments using common materials you have at home.
One common homework and test question asks you to name the three types of RNA and list their functions. Here's the answer.
If you take chemistry, you need to know about moles. Find out what a mole is and why this unit is used in chemistry.
Strong bases are bases which completely dissociate in water. Here is a list of the most common strong bases.
Here is a look at what the molecular formula and empirical formula are and steps for finding the molecular formula and empirical formula.
Water is a polar molecule. Here is the explanation for why water is a polar molecule and why water is a polar solvent.
Review how to calculate pH and what pH means with respect to hydrogen ion concentration, acids, and bases.
Get information about the common characteristics of the nonmetals.
The halogens are a specific group of nonmetals with some distinctive properties. Get facts about the location and characteristics of the halogens.
The baking soda and vinegar volcano is the classic chemical volcano that you see at science fairs. Watch how easy it is to make a chemical volcano that produces a memorable eruption.
Find out what alum is and the uses of alum.
This is a periodic table of the metals, metalloids, and nonmetals and a description of these major element groups.
Most of the chemical elements are metals of one variety or another. Learn about some of the properties common to this large element group.
The normality of a solution is the gram equivalent weight of a solute per liter of solution. Here's an example of how to calculate the normality of a solution.
Before performing chemical reactions, it is helpful to know how much product will be produced with given quantities of reactants. This is known as the theoretical yield. Here's how to calculate it.
Science fair and research projects apply the scientific method. Here's an explanation of the scientific method and how the scientific method is used.
You can make fake snow using a common polymer. The fake snow is non-toxic, feels cool to the touch, and looks similar to the real thing.
Everything in the world consists of atoms, so it's good to know something about them. Here are 10 interesting and useful atom facts.
Here is an explanation of what chemical properties are, plus several examples of chemical properties of matter.
There is a difference between the meanings of atomic mass and mass number. One is the average weight of an element and the other is the total number of nucleons in the atom's nucleus. Here's how to keep them straight.
Get step-by-step instructions for making classic slime.
This is a list of chemical reactions that are endothermic reactions.
Oxidation and reduction reactions involve an exchange of electrons between reactants. Here is how to tell which reactant was oxidized and which was reduced.
Download or print these PNG and PDF printable periodic tables to help work chemistry problems or to predict properties of the elements.
The density of water is related to its specific gravity. The density is the weight of the water per its unit volume, which depends on the temperature of the water. While you can round the density to 1 gram per milliliter, here are more precise values for you.
See how elements are organized into element groups in the periodic table. Page 2.
This is a list of the solubility rules for ionic solids in water. While it's a good idea to memorize them, the list is a good reference to use.
Learn how to remove fluoride from drinking water.
Find out what the products of photosynthesis are and view the overall chemical reaction.
A synthesis reaction or direct combination reaction is one of the most common types of chemical reactions. Here is a definition, explanation, and example of a synthesis reaction.
A scientific experiment may be designed with a control group. Here's a look at what a control group is and how it helps increase the validity of an experiment.
The scientific method is a method for conducting an objective investigation. The scientific method involves making observations and conducting an experiment to test a hypothesis. Here are the steps of the scientific method.
Learn about the difference between the control group and the experimental group in a scientific experiment.
This is a classic recipe for homemade slime. It's super-easy, plus I included tips for success.
Test your general science knowledge of 9th grade science with this fun online multiple choice quiz.
Here are the names and formulas of some of the common acids and bases.
Get ideas for 8th grade science fair projects. These are experiments and topics suitable for upper middle school level science fair projects.
If you were a famous mad scientist, which mad scientist would you be? Take this fun multiple choice quiz to find out.
This is a worked example problem showing how to calculate mass percent composition.
Is it really possible to drink to much water? Learn about water intoxication and hyponatremia.
List of materials that glow under ultraviolet or black light.
Learn about chemical composition of the Earth's air. Percentages of the most common compounds are given, according to volume.
Learn about the different types of chemical bonds and the forces that affect the way electrons are shared.
Learn how to distinguish between a chemical property and a physical property of matter.
Saline solution refers to a salt solution, which you can prepare yourself using readily available materials. The solution can be used as a disinfectant, sterile rinse, or for labwork.
Start learning chemistry with the basics. Learn what chemistry is, what chemists do, and why it's important to study chemistry.
Mixing bleach and vinegar is a bad idea because it produces toxic chlorine gas. Here's what you should know about mixing bleach and vinegar, before you try it.
Atomic Structure Quiz - Test Your Chemistry Knowledge
Have you ever wondered why hair turns gray as you get older and whether there is something you can do to prevent it? Here's what happens.
Test your 6th grade general science knowledge with this fun multiple choice quiz.
Find out why you cry when you cut onions and how you can keep it from happening.
There are significant differences in the process of transcription in prokaryotes versus eukaryotes.
These are step by step instructions for growing your own sugar crystals or rock candy.
Learn about the characteristics and common properties of the transition metals.
Here is a look at the three most electrically conductive elements. As you might expect, all three conductive elements are metals.
Get 10 interesting facts about the element and metal gold.
Learn the difference between Celsius and centrigrade temperature scales.
Understanding acids and bases is important for grasping chemistry concepts. Here's an introduction to acids and bases, with definitions for key acid and base terms.
Rock candy is candy made by crystallizing sugar. You can grow sugar crystals yourself, plus add color and flavor to make rock candy that you can eat.
Perfume is a classic gift, but it's even better if it is a scent that you made yourself, especially if you package it in a beautiful bottle. Perfume you make yourself is free from synthetic chemicals and is fully customized to your personal taste. Here's how to make your own perfume.
The difference between mass and weight is one is the amount of matter in a material and the other is a measure of force acting on the material.
Get ideas for great high school science projects. These are projects targeted from the 9-12 grade educational level.
This is an explanation of the difference between accuracy and precision.
Learn how to make a smoke bomb. This is the list of materials required for making your own smoke bomb.
Here is an acids and bases example problem involving titration. A base of known concentration is used to neutralize an unknown concentration of an acid.
The octet rule is a theory used to predict molecular structures of compounds. The rule is used to determine how representative atoms covalently bond to each other by sharing valence electrons to fill eight outer shell electrons. This rule seems to be made to be broken. This article outlines the exceptions of Lewis' octet rule.
Take a multiple choice quiz to test yourself about the symbols for the first 20 elements.
Have you ever had a ring turn your finger green? The reason this happens is because of the metal content of the ring. Here's a look at what's happening.