Chemistry: Most Popular Articles
Heterogeneous and homogeneous refer to mixtures of materials in chemistry. The difference between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures is the degree at which the materials are mixed together.
Test your general science knowledge with this fun multiple choice quiz.
Learn the difference between baking powder and baking soda and how to make ingredient substitutions if you're out!
Percent error or percentage error expresses as a percentage the difference between an approximate or measured value and an exact or known value. Here is how to calculate percent error, with example calculations.
This timeline shows when each of the elements was discovered. Discovery of an element is marked by the scientist isolating the element in its pure form. The timeline also lists the discoverer's name and year of discovery.
Get examples of 10 chemical changes.
The difference between independent and dependent variables in a scientific experiment is which variable is being measured. Here's an explanation of how to tell these critical variables apart.
Baking powder and baking soda both are leavening agents that help baked goods to rise. They are not the same chemical, but you can substitute one for another in recipes. Here's how.
Physical changes involve a new form of matter, but no chemical reaction. This is a list of 10 examples of physical changes.
Lab reports are an essential part of all laboratory courses and usually a significant part of your grade. If your instructor gives you an outline for how to write a lab report, use that. Here's a format for a lab report you can use if you aren't sure what to write or need an explanation of what to include in the different parts of the report.
Atom Basics Quiz - Test Your Chemistry Knowledge: structure quiz chemistry knowledge model of the atom question quiz science fundamentals
Take a multiple choice quiz to test yourself about general knowledge in chemistry.
Calculating concentration is a basic skill needed by chemistry students. This is a list of steps and examples to calculate the concentration of chemical solutions in percent composition by mass, volume percent, molarity, molality, and normality. Make dilutions by adding the correct volume of solvent to make a new solution.
Metric to Metric Quiz - Test Your Chemistry Knowledge
This is the definition of an independent variable.
Here's a list of chemical elements ordered by increasing atomic number. The names and element symbols are provided.
There are seven elements that form diatomic molecules. This is a list of the seven diatomic elements.
This multiple choice quiz covers ionic compound nomenclature. Test your ability to name ionic compounds and to write the formula of ionic compounds from their names.
Learn to distinguish between ionic and covalent bonds, and determine whether a bond will be polar or nonpolar.
Here are some examples of physical changes and chemical changes, along with an explanation of how you can tell physical and chemical changes apart.
The difference between a control group and an experimental group is one group is exposed to the conditions of the experiment and the other is not.
The empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest whole number ratio between the elements. The molecular formula is the actual whole number ratio between the elements. This step by step tutorial shows how to calculate the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound.
The atomic mass or atomic weight of an element is a weighted average of all the element's isotopes based on their natural abundance. It is simple to calculate the atomic mass of an element with these steps.
A scientific experiment may be designed with a control group. Here's a look at what a control group is and how it helps increase the validity of an experiment.
A pure substance or chemical substance is a material that is homogeneous and has constant properties throughout the sample. Here are examples of pure substances.
Although DNA and RNA both carry genetic information, there are quite a few differences between them. This is a comparison of the differences between DNA versus RNA, including a quick summary and a detailed table of the differences.
Find out what chemical and physical changes are, get examples, and learn how to tell them apart.
This is an interactive periodic table or chart of the chemical elements. Click on an element symbol to get detailed information for each element.
Variables are an important part of science projects and experiments. Here is an explanation of what a variable is and a description of the different types of variables you'll encounter in science.
This is a list of some of the most common polyatomic ions. It is worth committing the polyatomic ions to memory, including their molecular formulas and ionic charge.
Mass percent composition of a molecule shows the amount each element in a molecule contributes to the total molecular mass. This step by step tutorial will show the method to determine the mass percent composition of a molecule.
Learn about the difference between a scientific law, hypothesis, and theory.
If you don't have buttermilk on hand, it's easy to apply a little kitchen chemistry to make buttermilk from regular milk. Here are 5 simple buttermilk recipes.
Organic compounds and inorganic compounds form the basis for chemistry. Here is a look at the difference between organic and inorganic compounds, plus examples of each type.
Here is a look at what the molecular formula and empirical formula are and steps for finding the molecular formula and empirical formula.
This is an explanation of the difference between accuracy and precision.
You see them all the time, but how well do you know your common organic functional groups? Take this quiz to see if you can match names to structures of functional groups. Put the FUN in FUNctional group!
Cations and anions are both ions. The difference between a cation and an anion is the net electrical charge of the ion. Here are the details on the difference and how to tell them apart.
Isotopes definition, as used in chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics.
It is easy to convert Celsius to Kelvin with these steps.
Learn how to distinguish between a chemical property and a physical property of matter.
Science fair and research projects apply the scientific method. Here's an explanation of the scientific method and how the scientific method is used.
Which chemical element are you? Technically speaking, you mostly consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but which element best represents your personality? Take this fun multiple choice quiz to find out.
The density of water is related to its specific gravity. The density is the weight of the water per its unit volume, which depends on the temperature of the water. While you can round the density to 1 gram per milliliter, here are more precise values for you.
At what temperature does water boil? What determines the boiling point of water? Here's the answer to this common question.
Learn the one and two letter symbols for the chemical elements using this handy list.
Ball point pen ink is not a something that you can usually remove with simple soap and water, but there is an easy and inexpensive way to remove pen ink from surfaces or clothing.
Take a multiple choice quiz to test yourself about general knowledge in science.
Chemistry happens in the real world, not just a lab. Here are 10 examples of chemical reactions in everyday life.
The periodic table of the elements contains a lot of information. Here is how to use a periodic table to gather information about the elements.
Here are examples of a scientific hypothesis and how to improve a hypothesis to use it for an experiment.
Water is a polar molecule. Here is the explanation for why water is a polar molecule and why water is a polar solvent.
Gas Constant (R) definition, as used in chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics.
A dependent variable is the variable being tested in a scientific experiment.
This worked example problem shows how to convert the number grams of a molecule to the number of moles of the molecule.
Borax is a common household and commercial chemical. Here's a look at what borax is, some facts about borax and how you can get borax.
Learn about endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions and get instructions to perform your own hot and cold chemistry.
Use these step by step instructions to write and balance chemical equations.
Get step by step instructions to memorize the periodic table of the elements, including printable tables and a blank practice table.
This is a worked example problem showing how to calculate mass percent composition.
The chemical volcano is the classic science fair project. Baking soda and vinegar combine to produce carbon dioxide, which builds up pressure in the center to cause an eruption of foamy lava. You can even color the lava to resemble a real volcanic eruption. This step-by-step recipe will show you how to make your own baking soda volcano.
Learn about the different types of chemical reactions and get examples of the reaction types.
Here is an explanation of what chemical properties are, plus several examples of chemical properties of matter.
These are examples of covalent bonds and covalent compounds.
The periodic table organizes the elements according to their periodic properties. Find 10 periodic table facts that are interesting and informative.
Intensive propertes and extensive properties are types of physical properties of matters. Here's a look at what intensive and extensive properties are and examples of them.
Here are examples of ionic bonds and ionic compounds.
Learn about the different types of chemical bonds and the forces that affect the way electrons are shared.
There is a difference between the meanings of atomic mass and mass number. One is the average weight of an element and the other is the total number of nucleons in the atom's nucleus. Here's how to keep them straight.
Distillation is one method of water purification. Is distilled water safe to drink or as good for you as other types of water? The answer depends on a few different factors.
Have you ever wondered how much of your body is water? The percentage of water varies according to your age and gender. Here's a look at how much water is inside you.
Download or print these PDF and PNG periodic tables to help work chemistry problems or to predict properties of the elements. The printable tables work well on mobile devices, too.
Learn what significant figures are and how they are used with respect to scientific measurements and calculations.
Learn what crystal meth is, why people take crystal meth, how it's made, and what risks are associated with using methamphetamine.
Get examples of types of solids, liquids, and gases and learn about the transitions or phase changes between them.
Before performing chemical reactions, it is helpful to know how much product will be produced with given quantities of reactants. This is known as the theoretical yield. It is also helpful to predict how much reagent you will need in order to produce a specific amount of products. This is a strategy to use when calculating theoretical yield of a chemical reaction.
The Bohr Model has an atom consisting of a small, positively-charged nucleus orbited by negatively-charged electrons. Here's a closer look at the Bohr Model, which is sometimes called the Rutherford-Bohr Model.
Two or more substances which have been combined such that each substance retains its own chemical identity.Flour and sugar may be combined to form a mixture.
Chemical Bonds & Compounds Chemistry Quiz: electron dot structures ionic covalent bonds lewis electron dot structures chemistry quiz chemistry quizzes
See how elements are organized into element groups in the periodic table. Page 2.
Understanding acids and bases is important for grasping chemistry concepts. Here's an introduction to acids and bases, with definitions for key acid and base terms.
Water is known as the universal solvent. Here is an explanation of why water is called the universal solvent and what properties make it good at dissolving other substances.
Functional groups are collections of atoms in a molecule that participate in characteristic reactions. If you are taking organic chemistry, it's a good idea to memorize important functional groups or at least bookmark a past listing functional groups so that you can refer to it.
The reaction between baking soda and vinegar generates carbon dioxide gas, which is used in chemical volcanoes and other projects. Here is a look at the reaction between baking soda and vinegar and the equation for the reaction.
Learn about natural ways to repel mosquitoes and develop strategies to reduce your exposure to them.
Can you recognize the elements when you see them? Here's a quiz that tests your ability to identify an element based on its appearance.
This is a summary of the past and present nomenclature or naming conventions for ionic compounds. The major prefixes and suffixes are explained and examples of their use are provded.
The building blocks of matter are called atoms. Yet you may be wondering what, exactly, is an atom? Here's a look at what an atom is and some examples of atoms.
Get ideas for great high school science projects. These are projects targeted from the 9-12 grade educational level.
Groups of Elements - This is an interactive periodic table of the elements.
Mixing bleach and ammonia is extremely dangerous, since toxic vapors will be produced. The primary toxic chemical formed by the reaction is chloramine vapor, with a potential for hydrazine formation. Here's a look at the chemical reactions involved in mixing bleach and ammonia, as well as some first aid advice if you accidentally become exposed to a bleach and ammonia mixture.
It's possible to make dry ice at home. Here are instructions and safety information on how to do it.
Test your periodic table knowledge with this fun multiple choice quiz.
This is an extensive list of physical properties of matter. It's especially useful if you need to cite examples of physical properties.
Molarity is a unit of concentration measuring the number of moles of a solute per liter of solution. The strategy to solving molarity problems is fairly simple. This outlines a straightforward method to calculate molarity of a solution.
This is a periodic table of the metals, metalloids, and nonmetals and a description of these major element groups.
Get ideas for 8th grade science fair projects. These are experiments and topics suitable for upper middle school level science fair projects.
Most elements are metals. This group includes the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, basic metals, and rare earth elements.
Most of the chemical elements are metals of one variety or another. Learn about some of the properties common to this large element group.
Have you ever wondered what pH stands for or where the term originated? Here is the answer to the question and a look at the history of the pH scale.
Here is a list of the elements in the human body.
Elements may be classified as either metals or nonmetals, based on their properties. Here's a look at the differences between the metals and nonmetals.
Apple seeds do contain a small amount of cyanide, which is a lethal poison, but humans are protected from it in several ways.
Are you looking for an activity or project with liquid nitrogen? This is the most extensive list of liquid nitrogen ideas you're likely to find, plus you're welcome to add your own suggestions.
Atomic Mass definition, as used in chemistry and other physical sciences.
Is dissolving salt in water an example of a chemical change or a physical change? Here's a look at the process that occurs when you dissolve salt in water and an explanation of the answer to the question.
Here is how to define anode and cathode and how to remember which is which.
Practice balancing chemical equations with this multiple choice quiz.
Use chemistry to make a bouncing polymer ball, then alter the procedure to see the effect the changes have on the characteristics of the bouncing ball.
Find out what a mole is and why this unit is used in chemistry.
How well do you know laboratory safety signs and hazard symbols? Take this fun quiz to see if you can recognize potential dangers in the lab.
Basics of Acids and Bases Quiz - Test Your Chemistry Knowledge
Law of Conservation of Mass definition, as used in chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics.
Review how to calculate pH and what pH means with respect to hydrogen ion concentration, acids, and bases.
It is easy to convert Kelvin to Celsius with these steps.
Take a multiple choice quiz to test yourself about the symbols for the first 20 elements.
Test your 6th grade general science knowledge with this fun multiple choice quiz.
Is dissolving sugar in water an example of a chemical or physical change? This process is a little trickier to understand than most, but if you look at the definition of chemical and physical changes, you'll see how it works. Here's the answer and an explanation of the process.
This is an overview of combustion reactions, including what they are, the general format for the reaction, and examples of combustion reactions.
Is it really possible to drink to much water? Learn about water intoxication and hyponatremia.
What is the freezing point of water or the melting point of water? Are the freezing point and melting point the same? Are there any factors that affect the freezing point of water? Here's a look at the answers to these common questions.
Here are the names and formulas of some of the common acids and bases.
This is a list of chemical reactions that are endothermic reactions.
This is a list of the solubility rules for ionic solids in water.
Monomers are the building blocks of more complex molecules, called polymers. Polymers consist of repeating molecular units which usually are joined by covalent bonds. Here is a closer look at the chemistry of monomers and polymers.
Here's a look at some of the career options available to you in the field of chemistry.
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Find out what alum is and the uses of alum.
Learn how to distiguish between solutions, suspensions, colloids, and dispersions. Get examples of the different types of mixtures.
Start learning chemistry with the basics. Learn what chemistry is, what chemists do, and why it's important to study chemistry.
Solution definition, as used in chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics.
Lipids are a diverse group of biological molecules. Here is a look at different types of lipids and where they are found.
Here is a mnemonic device to help you memorize the first 20 elements in the periodic table.
Here's an explanation of what STP is in chemistry and why it is useful, particularly when dealing with gases.
Here is an explanation of what physical properties are and examples of several physical properties.
Rust stains can be a challenge to remove because some treatments actually set the stain rather than remove it. Use a little chemistry know-how to successfully remove a rust stain.
Are you confused about how chemical engineering differs from pure chemistry or other types of engineering? Here's an explanation of what chemical engineering is and what chemical engineers do.
Learn how to remove fluoride from drinking water.
The normality of a solution is the gram equivalent weight of a solute per liter of solution. Here's an example of how to calculate the normality of a solution.
Learn about hydrogen bonding and density to understand why ice floats.
These are the strong acids. There are only six strong acids, so you might want to commit the list of strong acids to memory.
Here's a quick review of the concepts of accuracy and precision.
The pH of water is a value you should know, plus it's good to understand why the actual pH of water might differ from the theoretical value.
Get information about the common characteristics of the nonmetals.
Learn about chemical composition of the Earth's air. Percentages of the most common compounds are given, according to volume.
Metric units of measurement are all based on units of ten. Here is a list of the most common metric unit prefixes.
Saline solution refers to a salt solution, which you can prepare yourself using readily available materials. The solution can be used as a disinfectant, sterile rinse, or for labwork.
Why do you add salt to boiling water? There are a couple of answers to this common cooking question. Here's a look at the reason for salting water.
This is the science and engineering definition of a physical property.
This is an example of how to calculate absolute and relative error.