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Osmotic Pressure Example

Worked Osmotic Pressure Example Problem

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This example problem demonstrates how to calculate the amount of solute to add to create a specific osmotic pressure in a solution.

Problem:

How much glucose (C6H12O6) per liter should be used for an intravenous solution to match the 7.65 atm at 37 °C osmotic pressure of blood?

Solution:

Osmosis is the flow of a solvent into a solution through a semipermiable membrane. Osmotic pressure is the pressure that stops the process of osmosis. Osmotic pressure is a colligative property of a substance since it depends on the concentration of the solute and not its chemical nature.

Osmotic pressure is expressed by the formula:

Π = iMRT

where
Π is the osmotic pressure in atm
i = van 't Hoff factor of the solute.
M = molar concentration in mol/L
R = universal gas constant = 0.08206 L·atm/mol·K
T = absolute temperature in K

Step 1: - Determine the van 't Hoff factor

Since glucose does not dissociate into ions in solution, the van 't Hoff factor = 1

Step 2: - Find absolute temperature

T = °C + 273
T = 37 + 273
T = 310 K

Step 3: - Find concentration of glucose

Π = iMRT
M = Π/iRT
M = 7.65 atm/(1)(0.08206 L·atm/mol·K)(310)
M = 0.301 mol/L

Step 4: - Find amount of sucrose per liter

M = mol/Volume
mol = M·Volume
mol = 0.301 mol/L x 1 L
mol = 0.301 mol

From the periodic table:
C = 12 g/mol
H = 1 g/mol
O = 16 g/mol

molar mass of glucose = 6(12) + 12(1) + 6(16)
molar mass of glucose = 72 + 12 + 96
molar mass of glucose = 180 g/mol

mass of glucose = 0.301 mol x 180 g/1 mol
mass of glucose = 54.1 g

Answer:

54.1 grams per liter of glucose should be used for an intravenous solution to match the 7.65 atm at 37 °C osmotic pressure of blood.

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