1. Education

Stoichiometry & Reactions

Learn how to balance chemical equations. Use molar relationships to calculate reactants and products and to determine percent composition and percent yield.

Stoichiometry Quiz
Stoichiometry is concerned with the proportions of elements that combine during chemical reactions. Test your understanding of stoichiomety with this fun multiple choice quiz.

Balancing Chemical Equations
Here is a step-by-step tutorial for balancing chemical equations, along with a worked example. This is a must-read for students of general and introductory chemistry!

Balancing Redox Reactions
Get step-by-step instructions for balancing redox reactions for conservation of mass and charge in electrochemistry.

Types of Chemical Reactions - Video
Chemical reactions may be classified according to the way the reaction occurs. This video takes a look at the main categories of chemical reactions and provides examples of each reaction type.

Chemical Reaction Orders
Learn how to classify chemical reactions using kinetics. Identify and define zero, first, second, mixed, and higher order reactions.

Catalysts and Catalysis
Learn what catalysts are and how they affect the activation energy and reaction rate of a chemical reaction.

Chemical Equilibrium
Learn about the basics of chemical equilibrium, including how to write the expression for chemical equilibrium.

Common Polyatomic Ions
This is a table of some of the most common polyatomic ions. Names, formulae, and charges are listed.

Diagram of Redox Half-Reactions
This is a diagram explaining the components of redox (oxidation-reduction) half-reactions.

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Learn about endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions and get instructions to perform your own hot and cold chemistry demonstrations.

Factors that Affect Chemical Reaction Rate
Here's a list and description of the major factors that can affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Links for more detailed information are also provided.

Laws of Thermochemistry
Certain rules or laws apply to thermochemical equations and enthalpy. These are explanations and examples of these laws, including Hess's Law.

Le Chatelier's Principle
Learn what Le Chatelier's Principle is and how it can be applied to predict the effect of a change in conditions on chemical equilibrium.

Molecules and Moles
Learn how molecules, moles, and Avogadro's number relate to each other. This is a good introduction to the study of compounds and stoichiometry.

Reactions in Water or Aqueous Solution
Let's review some important types of reactions that occur in aqueous solution and take a look at the rules that are used when writing balanced equations for water reactions.

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
Learn how to assign oxidation numbers to keep track of the distribution of electrons during a chemical reaction.

Salt Formation Chemistry
Learn about the chemistry behind salt formation, including neutralization and hydrolysis reactions.

Solubility Product Constants at 25 Degrees Celsius
This is a table of the solubility product constants for some common ions in aqueous solution at 25 degrees Celsius.

Types of Chemical Reactions
Learn about the different types of chemical reactions and get examples of the reaction types.

Types of Inorganic Chemical Reactions
There are four main categories of inorganic chemical reactions. Can you name them all? Here they are, along with examples of each type.

What Is a Mole and Why Are Moles Used?
No, we're not talking about the small burrowing mammal! Here's a look at a standard unit in chemistry and why it's used.

Theoretical Yield Example Problem
This example problem demonstrates how to predict the amount of product produced from a given amount of reactants.

Theoretical Yield Worked Problem
This example problem demonstrates how to calculate the amount of reactant needed to produce a product.

What Is a Chemical Equation?
What Is a Chemical Equation?

How to Calculate Theoretical Yield of a Chemical Reaction
Before performing chemical reactions, it is helpful to know how much product will be produced with given quantities of reactants. This is known as the theoretical yield. This strategy makes calculating theoretical yield a simple process.

What is the Difference Between Chemical Reaction and Chemical Equation?
What is the difference between a chemical reaction and the chemical equation? The terms are often used interchangeably, but they technically have different meanings.

What is a Second Order Reaction?
A second order reaction is a chemical reaction which proceeds at a rate proportional to the square of the concentration of one reactant or the product of the concentrations of two reactants. There are many reactions that are second order reactions, but here is a list of ten example reactions that are second order reactions.

Chemical Reaction Arrows
Chemical reactions are written with arrows denoting a reaction starts with one thing, follows the arrow and becomes another thing. Different types of arrows are used to show special types of chemical reactions. This list shows the most common arrows used in chemical reaction formulas.

Learn about Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry is a fancy way of saying 'mass relationships'. Here's what you need to know about stoichiometry to get through chemistry class and understand the concepts.

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