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# Physical Chemistry & Thermochemistry

This is a collection of problem sets, lecture notes, articles, and labs for physical chemistry, thermochemistry, and thermodynamics.
1. Thermochemistry Problems (15)

Laws of Thermochemistry
The laws of thermochemistry are used to describe the heat or energy flow of chemical reactions. Understanding the values of a reaction's enthalpy will help determine whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic.

Standard State Conditions
Values of thermodynamic quantities are commonly expressed for standard state conditions, so it is a good idea to understand what the standard state conditions are.

What Is Absolute Zero?
Learn about absolute zero and the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.

Energy Basics Quiz
Test your knowledge about basic energy science with this fun multiple choice quiz.

Energy Multiple Choice Quiz
Test your knowledge about energy science with this fun multiple choice quiz.

Calculating Bond Energies & Enthalpies - Worked Problem
This is a step-by-step worked problem to help you calculate bond energies and enthalpies for gaseous reactions.

Calculating Enthalpy Change - Worked Problems
This is a set of worked thermochemistry problems for calculating the change in enthalpy. Links are given to rules of thermochemistry and explanations of endothermic and exothermic reactions.

Calculating Heats of Formation - Worked Problems
These are examples of how to calculate the heats of formation for compounds and ions in aqueous solution.

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Learn about endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions and get instructions to perform your own hot and cold chemistry demonstrations.

Endothermic Reaction Demonstration
Here's an endothermic reaction demonstration that is easy to do and cold enough to freeze water.

Heats of Formation - Anions & Cations
This is a table of molar heats of formation for common anions and cations in aqueous solution.

Laws of Thermochemistry
Certain rules or laws apply to thermochemical equations and enthalpy. These are explanations and examples of these laws, including Hess's Law.

Measurement of Heat Flow - Coffee Cup & Bomb Calorimeters
A calorimeter is a device used to measure the quantity of heat flow in a chemical reaction. Learn about two of the most common types of calorimeters, the coffee cup calorimeter and the bomb calorimeter, and find out how to use them to calculate heat flow and enthalpy change.

Nernst Equation
The Nernst equation is used to calculate the voltage of an electrochemical cell or to find the concentration of one of the components of the cell. Here is a look at the Nernst equation and an example of how to apply it to solve a problem.

Nuclear Reactions - Mass - Energy Relations
Learn how to calculate the energy change in a nuclear reaction, such as radioactive decay.

Single Bond Energies
This is a table of single bond energies in units of kJ/mol at 25°C. Use these values to predict whether a reaction will be endothermic or exothermic and to calculate change in enthalpy for gases.

Boyle's Law Animated Illustration
Boyle's Law describes the relationship between pressure and volume of an ideal gas when mass and temperature are held constant.

Charles' Law Animated Illustration
Charles' Law describes the relationship between temperature and volume of an ideal gas when mass and pressure are held constant.

How the Drinking Bird Science Toy Works
The drinking bird or sippy bird is a popular science toy that features a glass bird that repeatedly dips its beak into water. Here's the explanation for how this science toy works.

If a Molecule is Oxidized Does It Gain or Lose Energy?
Oxidation occurs when a molecule loses an electron. Learn how this affects its energy.

If a Molecule Is Reduced Does It Gain or Lose Energy?
Reduction occurs when a molecule gains an electron. Learn how this affects its energy.

Energy Quiz - Test Your Energy Science Knowledge
Test your knowledge about energy science with this fun multiple choice quiz.

Examples of Electromagnetic Energy
Here are examples of electromagnetic energy.