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November 19 Science History

Science History of November 19

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Learn about the history of science by reading about the significant scientific events that took place on this day in history.

2004 - John Robert Vane died.

Vane was a British chemist who was awarded one third of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery that aspirin inhibits the formation of prostaglandin. Prostgalandins are associated with fever, inflammation and pain. This research established the physiological evidence to support the use of one of the most widely used medications, aspirin. He also discovered the prostagladin prostacyclin that is important to the process of blood coagulation.

1998 - Tetsuya Theodore "Ted" Fujita died.

Tetsuya Theodore Fujita "Mr. Tornado" (1920 - 1998)
NOAA
Fujita was a Japanese-American meteorologist who studied severe storm systems. He is best known for his Fujita scale to rate the severity of tornadoes. This scale measures tornado intensity and relates wind speed to the amount of damage the tornado causes. He is also known for the discovery of microbursts. These powerful, short-lived bursts of air are caused by a downdraft of air that pushes outward at the ground level.

1990 - Georgii Nikolaevich Flerov died.

Flerov was the Russian physicist who recognized the spontaneous fission of uranium. He set up several research centers into nuclear science and was a direct influence on nearly every Russian nuclear scientist. One laboratory he set up was the Dubna laboratory which synthesized many transactinde elements.

1936 - Yuan Tseh Lee was born.

Lee is a Taiwanese-American chemist who shares the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with John Polanyi and Dudley Herschbach for their contributions to the understanding of elementary chemical processes. Lee worked with Herschbach's crossed molecular beam technique where beams of molecules are accelerated and forced to collide to study the events that occur during reactions in the collisions. He added the ability to conduct mass spectrometry to identify the products of oxygen and fluorine beams crossed with organic compounds.

1915 - Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. was born.

Sutherland was an American biochemist who was awarded the 1971 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery of how hormones work. He isolated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and discovered how it acts as a second messenger in cells. He also demonstrated its role in the actions of hormones on the cellular level.

1912 - George Emil Palade was born.

Palade was a Romanian cytologist who shares the 1974 Nobel Prize in Medicine with Albert Claude and Christian de Duve for their discoveries in cell function and organization. The discovered the vacuole that is present in all plant cells and some animal and bacteria cells. The are enclosed compartments in the cell membrane that contain enzymes in solution that maintain cell health and conditions.

1887 - James Batcheller Sumner was born.

Sumner was an American chemist who was awarded half the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery that enzymes could be crystallized. He discovered enzymes could be isolated in a pure form by isolating urease. He also showed urease was a protein and proved enzymes were proteins.

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