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Organic Chemistry Lecture Notes & Labs

Learn about the concepts of organic chemistry through lecture notes, flash cards, study guides, structure databases, laboratory exercises, problems sets, and self-tests.

Organic Chemistry Introduction
Organic chemistry is more than simply the study of carbon or the study of chemicals in living organisms. Take a look at what organic chemistry is, why it is important, and what organic chemists do.

10 Carbon Facts
Learn some interesting facts about carbon, the element that is the basis for organic chemistry.

Functional Groups
Functional groups are groups of atoms found within molecules that are involved in the chemical reactions characteristic of those molecules. Functional groups can pertain to any molecules, but you will usually hear about them in the context of organic chemistry.

Chemistry Laboratory Safety Rules
Make your chemistry laboratory experience safe by following these simple rules.

Elements in the Human Body
Find out what elements are in the human body and what these elements do.

Amino Acid Structures
These are the structures for the twenty natural amino acids, plus the general structure for an amino acid.

Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Tutorial
As the price of diesel continues to climb, you may wish to consider making your own diesel from cooking oil, called biodiesel. It's easy and could save you money.

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates or saccharides are the most abundant class of biomolecules. Carbohydrates are used to store energy, though they serve other important functions as well. This is an overview of carbohydrate chemistry, including a look at the types of carbohydrates, their functions, and carbohydrate classification.

Carbon Cycle
Carbon is an element that is essential for life. The carbon cycle describes the storage and exchange of carbon between the Earth's biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.

Citric Acid Cycle
The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is a series of chemical reactions in the cell that breaks down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water, and energy.

Functional Groups - Organic Chemistry Essentials
These are the names and structures of important organic functional groups containing nitrogen or oxygen. Learn 'em, live 'em, love 'em!

Lipids
Lipids are class of naturally-occurring organic compounds that you may know by their common names: fats and oils. Here's a look at the function, structure, and physical properties of lipids.

Glycolysis
Glycolysis is the name given to the series of biochemical reactions in which glucose is converted into pyruvate. This important part of carbohydrate catabolism takes place in the cytoplasm of cells. Several reactions take place, with products that are vital to the functioning of the cell.

How to Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid
Learn how to synthesize aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, from salicyclic acid. Get information about the history of aspirin, the effects of salicylates, and see the structures of the reactants.

How To Purify Alcohol Using Distillation
Denatured alcohol is toxic. If you need pure ethanol, you can purify denatured, contaminated or impure alcohol using distillation. Here's how to do it.

Monomers and Polymers
Monomers are the building blocks of more complex molecules, called polymers. Polymers consist of repeating molecular units which usually are joined by covalent bonds. Here is a closer look at the chemistry of monomers and polymers.

Nucleic Acid Facts
If you're taking general chemistry, organic, or biochemistry, you'll need to understand some basic concepts about nucleic acids, the polymers used to code the genetic information of organisms. Here are some quick nucleic acid facts to get you started.

Photosynthesis Basics - Study Guide
Photosynthesis is the name for the set of chemical reactions used by plants and other organisms to make food from sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water. Here's a look at the process and study questions to help make sure you understand the key concepts.

Purines, Pyrimidines, Nucleosides and Nucleotides
These are the chemical structures of the purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, and nucleotides.

Saturated Fat
Saturated fats are important in diet and nutrition as well as chemistry. Here's an explanation of what a saturated fat is.

Chemical Structures Archive
Many organi0 structures, including amino acids and rings, are listed in this directory, with more added all of the time.

Simple Alkane Chains
An alkane is a hydrocarbon molecule made up entirely of carbon and hydrogen where the carbon atoms are connected by carbon-carbon single bonds. The general formula for an alkane is C n H 2n+2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. Each carbon atom has four single bonds and forms a tetrahedron. This means the bond angle is 109.5...

Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbon Nomenclature Prefixes
This table lists the prefixes used in organic chemistry nomenclature to represent the number of carbon atoms in a basic hydrocarbon chain.

Simple Alkyne Chains
An alkyne is a molecule made up entirely of carbon and hydrogen where on or more carbon atoms are connected by triple bonds. The general formula for an alkyne is C n H 2n-2 where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. Alkanes are named by adding the the -yne suffix to the prefix associated with the number of carbon atoms present...

Simple Alkene Chains
An alkene is a molecule made up entirely of carbon and hydrogen where on or more carbon atoms are connected by double bonds. The general formula for an alkene is C n H 2n where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. Alkanes are named by adding the the -ene suffix to the prefix associated with the number of carbon atoms present in...

Simple Alkyl Chains
A simple alkyl group is a functional group made up entirely of carbon and hydrogen where the carbon atoms are chained together by single bonds. The general molecular formula for simple alkyl groups is -C n H 2n+1 where n is the number of carbon atoms in the group. Simple alkyl groups are named by adding the the -yl suffix to the prefix...

What Type of Bonds Does Carbon Form?
Carbon and its bonds are key to organic chemistry and biochemistry as well as general chemistry. Here's a look at the most common type of bond formed by carbon as well as the other chemical bonds it can also form.

Ortho Meta Para in Organic Chemistry
Learn what ortho, meta, and para mean in organic chemistry and how to identify these chemical structures.

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