Biochemistry Lecture Notes & Labs
Elements in the Human Body
Find out what elements are in the human body and what these elements do.
Carbohydrates or saccharides are the most abundant class of biomolecules. Carbohydrates are used to store energy, though they serve other important functions as well. This is an overview of carbohydrate chemistry, including a look at the types of carbohydrates, their functions, and carbohydrate classification.
DNA versus RNA
Although DNA and RNA both carry genetic information, there are quite a few differences between them. This is a comparison of the differences between DNA versus RNA, including a quick summary and a detailed table of the differences.
Introduction to Biochemistry Quiz
How much do you know about biochemistry? Test your knowledge with this introductory biochemistry quiz.
These are the reactions of the Calvin Cycle, which are the dark reactions in photosynthesis and carbon fixation.
Glycolysis is the name given to the series of biochemical reactions in which glucose is converted into pyruvate. This important part of carbohydrate catabolism takes place in the cytoplasm of cells. Several reactions take place, with products that are vital to the functioning of the cell.
Nucleic Acid Facts
If you're taking general chemistry, organic, or biochemistry, you'll need to understand some basic concepts about nucleic acids, the polymers used to code the genetic information of organisms. Here are some quick nucleic acid facts to get you started.
Protein and Polypeptide Structure
This article describes the four levels of protein and polypeptide structure, with examples and links for additional reading.
Purines, Pyrimidines, Nucleosides and Nucleotides
These are the chemical structures of the purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, and nucleotides.
This is a generalized diagram of the chemical reactions necessary for photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis Basics - Study Guide
Photosynthesis is the name for the set of chemical reactions used by plants and other organisms to make food from sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water. Here's a look at the process and study questions to help make sure you understand the key concepts.
Learn about the process of translation, in which the genetic code of mRNA is used to produce amino acids that will ultimately become proteins.
Amino Acid Chirality
This is an introduction to stereoisomerism of amino acids, with Fisher projections and stereorepre0entations of serine used as an example. There are links to learn more about amino acids and about chirality of other molecules.
Amino Acid Structures
These are the structures for the twenty natural amino acids, plus the general structure for an amino acid.
BHA and BHT
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are added to many foods to prevent fat spoilage. This article describes what BHA and BHT are, what they do, and how they do it. There is a fairly lengthy list of references because there is controversy over the health effects of BHA, BHT, and other additives.
Biochemistry of Lycopene
Lycopene is the red pigment in tomatoes and several fruits. Find out more about how this antioxidant protects against cancer and heart disease.
Learn what anabolic steroids are, how they can enhance athletic performance, and what risks are associated with using performance enhancing drugs.
10 Carbon Facts
Learn some interesting facts about carbon, the element that is the basis for organic chemistry.
Cell Molecular Composition
Cell Molecular Composition
Learn about the chemical and biological properties of caffeine, the methylxanthine stimulant found in coffee and other foods.
Does Eating Turkey Make You Sleepy?
Find out why everyone wants to take a nap after Thanksgiving Day turkey dinner. Let's talk turkey and learn about L-tryptophan and carbohydrate metabolism.
Can You Drink Too Much Water?
It's important to drink plenty of fluids, but can you overdo it? Learn the truth about water intoxication and hyponatremia.
Drugs from Plants
This is a table listing many of the pharmaceuticals that are derived from plants, including the names of the drugs, their actions, plant sources, and the common names of the plants.
Essential Amino Acids
This is an explanation of what essential amino acids are and a list of the essential amino acids for humans.
Collagen is a protein made up of amino acids found in the human body. Here's a look at what collagen is and its functions.
Food Chemistry Quiz
Do you know about the chemistry of food? Test your knowledge with this fun and quick ten-question multiple choice quiz.
Luminol Chemiluminescence Test for Blood
You can use the luminol chemiluminescence reaction as a quick and easy forensic test for blood. Here's a look at what you need to perform the test, how to do it, and an explanation of how the luminol test works.
Is There Really a Chemistry of Love?
Sweaty palms and a pounding heart don't just happen! It takes complex biochemistry to give you the symptoms of being in love. And lust. And security. Chemistry may even play a role in falling out-of-love. Get some of the details here, with links for further study.
Fermentation is a process used to produce wine, beer, yogurt and other products. Here's a look at the chemical process that occurs during fermentation.
Osmotic Pressure and Red Blood Cells
See the effect of hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic osmotic pressure on red blood cells.
Tattoo Ink Chemistry
Tattoo inks aren't regulated by the US FDA, so what you don't know can hurt you. This 3-part article examines the pigments, carriers, and other chemistry-related issues concerning tattoo inks and their toxicity. Instructions for making your own tattoo ink are provided.
What Causes Rigor Mortis?
Dead bodies are sometimes referred to as 'stiffs' for a reason! Learn what rigor mortis is and find out why it happens.
Your stomach produces hydrochloric acid, so you would expect it to be acidic. Do you know just how low your stomach pH gets or whether the pH is constant? Here's a look at the chemistry of stomach pH.
The primary methylxanthine in chocolate is theobromine, a molecule similar to caffeine. See the structure of theobromine and read about its chemistry, effects on people and animals, and uses. There are links to chocolate history and chemical research, veterinary advice for theobromine poisoning, and related resources.
Why Veins Look Blue
Your blood is always red, even when it is deoxygenated, so why do your veins look blue? They aren't blue, either, but here is the reason why veins look that way.
Elemental Composition of the Human Body by Mass
This is a table of the elemental composition of the human body by mass.
Background information pertains to enzyme reactions. From Worthington Biochemical Corporation.
What Is a Saturated Fat?
Saturated fats are important in diet and nutrition as well as chemistry. Here's an explanation of what a saturated fat is.
Topics include atomic bonding and enzymology. From Brooklyn College, City University of New York.
General, Organic, and Biochemistry
Lecture slides with brief summations.
What Are the Elements in the Human Body?
Do you know the chemical composition of the human body? Here's the list of elements, given in percentage according to weight.
Introduction to Enzymes
This site was prepared by Worthington Biochemical Corporation as a practical introduction to enzymology. References are provided.
What Is the Volume & Chemical Composition of Blood?
Do you know how many liters of blood are in your body? How about what's in your blood? Let's learn about the chemistry of human blood.
Large Molecules Problem Set
Study biological molecules in a question and answer format. From the University of Arizona.
Very complete and impressive online text provided by Indiana University School of Medicine.
Metabolism Problem Set
Quizzes with answers from the University of Arizona.
Principles of Protein Structure Using the Internet
Requires paid subscription. Some free course work available. From Birkbeck College, University of London.
Slides and syllabi used in undergraduate and graduate level chemistry courses. Topics include biochemistry, analytical, general, and organic chemistry. From University of Akron.
10 RNA Facts
RNA or ribonucleic acid is used to translate instructions from DNA to make proteins in your body. Here are 10 interesting and fun facts about RNA.
Which Pathway Produces the Most ATP per Glucose Molecule?
It's important know how many ATP are produced per glucose molecule by various metabolic pathways, such as the Krebs cycle, fermentation, glycolysis, electron transport and chemiosmosis.
The amino acids are important biochemical molecules. Learn about the characteristics and structures of the amino acids. Get the three letter abbreviations for the amino acids and see how they are characterized according to their polarity and side chains.
10 Interesting DNA Facts
DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid codes for your genetic make-up. There are lots of facts about DNA, but here are 10 that are particularly interesting, important, or fun.