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How to Prepare Common Acid Solutions

How to Prepare Common Acid Solutions

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Acid solutions are vital in chemistry labs.

Acid solutions are vital in chemistry labs.

Steve Allen, Getty Images
Learn how to prepare common acid solutions using this handy table. The third column lists the amount of solute (acid) that is used to make 1 L of acid solution. Always add acid to a large volume of water. The solution may then be diluted with additional water to make one liter. Because mixing acid with water is an exothermic reaction, be sure to use glassware capable of withstanding the temperature change (e.g., Pyrex or Kimax). Sulfuric acid is particularly reactive with water. Add the acid slowly to the water while stirring.

Recipes for Acid Solutions

Name / Formula / F.W. Concentration Amount/Liter
Acetic Acid 6 M 345 mL
CH3CO2H 3 M 173
F.W. 60.05 1 M 58
99.7%, 17.4 M 0.5 M 29
sp. gr. 1.05 0.1 M 5.8
     
Hydrochloric Acid 6 M 500 mL
HCl 3 M 250
F.W. 36.4 1 M 83
37.2%, 12.1 M 0.5 M 41
sp. gr. 1.19 0.1 M 8.3
     
Nitric Acid 6 M 380 mL
HNO3 3 M 190
F.W. 63.01 1 M 63
70.0%, 15.8 M 0.5 M 32
sp. gr. 1.42 0.1 M 6.3
     
Phosphoric Acid 6 M 405 mL
H3PO4 3 M 203
F.W. 98.00 1 M 68
85.5%, 14.8 M 0.5 M 34
sp. gr. 1.70 0.1 M 6.8
     
Sulfuric Acid 9 M 500 mL
H2SO4 6 M 333
F.W. 98.08 3 M 167
96.0%, 18.0 M 1 M 56
sp. gr. 1.84 0.5 M 28
  0.1 M 5.6

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