Died: July 27, 1844
Claim to Fame: Dalton was an English chemist and physicist who is best known for his atomic theory and research into colorblindness. He proposed elements were made up of individual atoms that could not be broken down into smaller parts. He also said all atoms of an element are identical. He sought to determine the cause of color blindness since he was color blind himself. He believed it was caused by a discoloration in the medium in the eye.