John Robert Vane (1927-2004) British biochemist, winner of 1982 Nobel Prize in Medicine
Jacobus H. van't Hoff, famous Netherlands chemist who won the 1901 (first) Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.
Lauri Vaska (born 1925), Estonian/American chemist
Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin (1763-1829), French chemist, discovered beryllium and chromium
Paul Vieille (1854-1934), French chemist
Vincent du Vigneaud (1901-1978) American biochemist, winner of 1955 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (1895-1973), Finnish chemist, winner of 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Tuan Vo-Dinh (born April 11, 1948) Vietnamese/American biophysical chemist who has made significant contributions to the fields of photonics, especially spectroscopy