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General - Introductory Chemistry

Learn the concepts of general and introductory chemistry, with the aid of worked example chemistry problems, lecture notes, lab exercises, and chemistry quizzes.
  1. Acids & Bases (60)
  2. Atom & Molecule Structure (30)
  3. Chemistry 101 - Introduc...
  4. Chemistry Charts & Tables
  5. Chemistry Experiments
  6. Chemistry FAQs (625)
  7. Chemistry Fun & Humor (75)
  8. Chemistry Lab Experiments (42)
  9. Chemistry Lesson Plans (26)
  10. College Chemistry (31)
  11. Electrochemistry (23)
  12. Element Facts
  13. Equations of State (10)
  14. Gases (29)
  15. Gen Chem Journals (32)
  16. High School Chemistry (13)
  17. Home Chemistry Kit (94)
  18. Lab Techniques
  19. Lecture Notes (152)
  20. Matter
  21. Quimica (2)
  22. Stoichiometry (28)
  23. Tests & Quizzes (52)
  24. Units & Conversions (38)
  25. Virtual Chemistry Textbook (19)

11th Grade Chemistry Notes and Review
These are notes and a review of 11th grade or high school chemistry.

Chemistry Basics - What Is Chemistry
Start learning chemistry with the basics. Learn what chemistry is, what chemists do, and why it's important to study chemistry.

General Chemistry
Welcome to General Chemistry! This is an overview of General Chemistry topics, such as acids and bases, atomic structure, the periodic table, chemical bonds, and chemical reactions.

Learn Chemistry
Learn chemistry! Get chemistry help, tutorials, example problems, self-quizzes, and chemistry tools so you can learn the concepts of general chemistry.

Teach Yourself Chemistry
You can teach yourself general chemistry with this step-by-step introduction to the basic concepts.

How to Write a Lab Report
Lab reports are an essential part of all laboratory courses and usually a significant part of your grade. If your instructor gives you an outline for how to write a lab report, use that. Here's a format for a lab report you can use if you aren't sure what to write or need an explanation of what to include in the different parts of the report.

Chem Pre-Lab: How to Prepare for Chemistry Lab
Chemistry lab is a required component of most chemistry courses. Learning about lab procedures and performing experiments helps you to learn...

Chemistry Study Tips
Here are some homework and study tips to help you succeed in chemistry.

Printable Chemistry Worksheets
This is a collection of chemistry worksheets in pdf format. The answers to the questions are available on separate worksheets so you can fill them out and then check your work.

Chemistry 101: An Introduction and Study Tips
Teach yourself chemistry! Get started with this index of topics and tips for homework and labs. You'll also find worked probems, a library of chemical structures, a glossary, periodic table, and additional resources.

Chemistry 11
This is a list of Chemistry 11 or 11th Grade High School Chemistry topics.

What Is Chemistry?
Here are long and short answers to this Frequently Asked Question.

What Is a Chemical?
Are you wondering what makes a chemical a chemical? Here's the answer to this frequently asked chemistry question.

Importance of Chemistry
What is the importance of chemistry? Why would you want to learn about chemistry? Chemistry is the study of matter and its interactions with other matter and energy. Here's a look at the importance of chemistry and why you should study it.

Top Reasons Why Students Fail Chemistry
Worried about failing chemistry? Here's a look at the main reasons why students fail. Avoiding these common problems could be a key to science class success!

Element List
Here's a list of chemical elements ordered by increasing atomic number. The names and element symbols are provided.

Chemistry Laboratory Safety Rules
Make your chemistry laboratory experience safe by following these simple rules.

Javascript Periodic Table of the Elements
This is an interactive javascript periodic table of the elements. Click on an symbol on the periodic table to get facts about the element.

Periodic Table of the Elements for Kids
This table was made with kids and homework in mind. It includes element groups and periods, element symbols, atomic numbers, atomic weights, and links to detailed facts for each element.

How to Fail a Chemistry Class
Avoid these mistakes to help ensure success in your chemistry class.

Alphabetical List of Elements
Here's a list of the elements, in alphabetical order according to their IUPAC names.

Chemistry Laboratory Glassware Gallery
Learn the names and uses of different types of chemistry laboratory glassware.

Compounds - Inorganic Chemicals
List of inorganic chemical compounds.

Alfred B. Nobel Prizes in Chemistry
This is a list of all of the Nobel laureates in Chemistry. The year, winner name(s), country, and research are included. Links to additional information on the laureates and Nobel foundation are also provided.

Amedeo Avogadro
Looking for information about Amedeo Avogadro, Avogadro's Hypothesis, and Avogadro's Number? It's all here, including a picture of Avogadro and links to other Avogadro and History of Chemistry web sites.

Amino Acid Chirality
This is an introduction to stereoisomerism of amino acids, with Fisher projections and stereorepresentations of serine used as an example. There are links to learn more about amino acids and about chirality of other molecules.

Atoms and Atomic Theory - Study Guide
Get essential facts about atoms and the basics of atomic theory, work problems to test your skills, then take a quiz to make sure you understand the concepts.

Avogadro's Law Calculation
Avogadro's Law is a specific instance of the Ideal Gas Law in which volume is directly proportional to the number of moles at constant temperature and pressure. Here's how to solve a direct proportion problem using Avogadro's Law.

Aufbau Principle and Electronic Structure
Stable atoms have as many electrons as they do protons. How do these electrons orient themselves around the nucleus? They fill their electron orbitals by the aufbau principle.

Balancing Chemical Equations
Here is a step-by-step tutorial for balancing chemical equations, along with a worked example. This is a must-read for students of general and introductory chemistry!

Balancing Redox Reactions
Get step-by-step instructions for balancing redox reactions for conservation of mass and charge in electrochemistry.

Basic Model of the Atom
Are you confused about atoms, elements, protons, neutrons, electrons, isotopes, and ions? Here's a basic look at the model of the atom. It's a great overview for kids or anyone looking to grasp the essentials of atomic theory.

Before You Buy a Chemistry Textbook
Asking yourself some questions can save a lot of money at the bookstore! Find out what you need to know before you purchase a chemistry textbook. The article refers to chemistry, but the tips really apply to all texts.

Boyle's Law
Here's an introduction to Boyle's Law, as well as a worked example problem and links to related resources.

Bravais Crystal Lattices
There are 14 distinct Bravais crystal lattices. The lattices can be used to describe the geometrical symmetry of a crystal. The Bravais lattices are sometimes called space lattices.

Calculating Concentration
Do the units for solution concentration confuse you? Get definitions and examples for calculating percent composition by mass, mole fraction, molarity, molality, and normality. I've also included a bit of information on dilutions.

Chemical & Physical Changes
Find out what chemical and physical changes are, get examples, and learn how to tell them apart.

Chemical Reaction Orders
Learn how to classify chemical reactions using kinetics. Identify and define zero, first, second, mixed, and higher order reactions.

Chemistry 101: An Introduction and Study Tips
From your About Chemistry guide, these are tips for homework and laboratory exercises, with links to a library of chemical structures, glossary, periodic table, and additional resources.

Chemistry of Hard and Soft Water
Do you have hard water or soft water? Both? Do you know why? Get the definitions for hard and soft water, learn about their chemistry, and examine the pros and cons of each type of water.

Chemistry Problems - Worked Examples
This is an ever-growing collection of worked chemistry problems. The examples are grouped according to subject matter.

Chemistry Scavenger Hunt
A chemistry scavenger hunt is an educational game where you find items that match a description. It's a great way to learn key concepts. Here's a list of chemistry scavenger hunt clues and items that match.

Chemistry Timeline
Find out who did what and when they did it. This timeline chronicles achievements in chemistry and in other disciplines (e.g., physics, mathematics) as they apply to chemistry.

Chromatography with Candy and Coffee Filters
Analyze the dyes used in your favorite candies with paper chromatography using a coffee filter, colored candies, and a salt solution.

Common Polyatomic Ions
This is a table of some of the most common polyatomic ions. Names, formulae, and charges are listed.

Endothermic Reaction Demonstration
Here's an endothermic reaction demonstration that is easy to do and cold enough to freeze water.

Electrochemical Cells - Galvanic (Voltaic) and Electrolytic
Learn about galvanic (voltaic) and electrolytic cells. You'll also get information about anodes and cathodes and direction of electron flow in the two electrochemical cells.

Element Mnemonic Device
Here's a handy mnemonic device to help memorize the symbols and sequence of the first nine elements in the periodic table.

Element of the Week E-Course
Learn about the elements! When you sign up you'll get one e-course newsletter a week until you've gotten them all. You'll get facts about the elements and related information about elements uses and their impact on our lives.

Element Symbols
It's easier to navigate the periodic table and write chemical equations and formulae once you know the symbols for the elements. Here's an alphabetical list of element symbols with corresponding element names.

Element Types - Chemistry of Groups
Learn the locations of element types on the periodic table and get summaries of the defining characteristics of element groups, such as alkaline earths, noble gases, halogens, etc.

Elements in the Human Body
Find out what elements are in the human body and what these elements do.

Elements Named for People - Element Eponyms
Alphabetical list of the chemical elements named after people.

Elements Named for Places - Element Toponyms
Alphabetical list of elements in chemistry named for places or element toponyms.

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Learn about endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions and get instructions to perform your own hot and cold chemistry demonstrations.

Endothermic Reaction Examples
Are you looking for examples of endothermic reactions for homework or to set up a demonstration? Here's a list of several heat-absorbing or endothermic chemical reactions and processes.

Experimental Determination of Avogadro's Number
Did you know that Avogadro's number isn't a mathematically derived unit. The number of particles in a mole of a material is determined experimentally. This easy method uses electrochemistry to make the determination.

Famous Chemists
This is an index of famous chemists and other scientists who made important contributions to the field of chemistry, arranged alphabetically according to the scientist's last name.

Fluid Mixing - Miscibility
Find out why fluid volumes aren't always additive. Your Guide's introduction to miscibility includes links for further reading.

Formulas of Common Acids & Bases
Here are the names and formulas of some of the common acids and bases. Learn how to apply prefixes and suffixes to name the acids and bases.

Functional Groups - Organic Chemistry Essentials
These are the names and structures of important organic functional groups containing nitrogen or oxygen. Learn 'em, live 'em, love 'em!

GED Study Guide for Chemisty
One section of the GED or General Education Development Test covers science, including chemistry. This study guide reviews the concepts you can expect to appear on the test.

Groups of Elements - Periodic Table
Elements can be categorized according to their similar properties. Here's a periodic table that organizes the elements according to groups. Click an element symbol and learn about the group to which it belongs.

Heats of Formation - Anions & Cations
This is a table of molar heats of formation for common anions and cations in aqueous solution.

History of Matches
Fire may have been around since the dawn of civilization, but matches are a fairly recent invention. Learn about the somewhat gruesome history of the chemical or friction match and how antimony and phosphorus are used to start fire.

How Do Detergents Clean?
Learn about the chemistry behind the cleaning power of detergents.

How to Clean Laboratory Glassware
Cleaning laboratory glassware isn't as simple as washing the dishes. Here's how to wash your glassware so that you won't ruin your chemical solution, laboratory experiment, or the glass.

How to Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid
Learn how to synthesize aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, from salicyclic acid. Get information about the history of aspirin, the effects of salicylates, and see the structures of the reactants.

Incompatible Chemical Mixtures
Here's a list of chemicals that you don't want to accidentally mix, together with brief statements about the expected reactions. Use this information to avoid accidents and ensure safe storage and handling of potentially dangerous substances, both at work and at home.

Introduction to Chemistry Quiz
This multiple choice quiz tests your understanding of introductory chemistry concepts. It covers matter, chemical and physical changes, energy, endothermic and exothermic reactions, measurements, significant figures, and scientific notation.

Introduction to Ideal Gases
From your About Chemistry Guide, this is a concise description of ideal gas properties and equations for the Ideal Gas Law, Boyle's Law, Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac, and Dalton's Law.

Introduction to Spectroscopy
Learn what spectroscopy and spectra are, how spectroscopy works, and what it is used for. This article includes a list of several different spectroscopies, with brief descriptions of their characteristics.

Introduction to the Periodic Table
Learn how the periodic table of the elements is structured. Get basic history about its development and learn how periods and groups relate to electrons and atomic mass.

Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Learn to distinguish between ionic and covalent bonds, and determine whether a bond will be polar or nonpolar.

Laws of Chemistry
Here's a reference page that describes the major laws of chemistry.

Laws of Thermochemistry
Certain rules or laws apply to thermochemical equations and enthalpy. These are explanations and examples of these laws, including Hess's Law.

Lewis Structures or Electron Dot Structures
Learn about Lewis structures, also called electron dot structures and get step-by-step help drawing them.

Liquid Elements
What are the six elements that are liquid at or near room temperature? Your About Guide answers this question and provides a few facts about each element.

Make a Mixture and a Compound from Iron and Sulfur
Do you know the difference between a mixture and a compound? Combine iron and sulfur to make a mixture and then react them to form a chemical compound.

Measurement of Heat Flow - Coffee Cup & Bomb Calorimeters
A calorimeter is a device used to measure the quantity of heat flow in a chemical reaction. Learn about two of the most common types of calorimeters, the coffee cup calorimeter and the bomb calorimeter, and find out how to use them to calculate heat flow and enthalpy change.

Molecules and Moles
Learn how molecules, moles, and Avogadro's number relate to each other. This is a good introduction to the study of compounds and stoichiometry.

Nomenclature for Ionic Compounds
This is a summary of the past and present naming conventions for ionic compounds. The major prefixes and suffixes are explained and examples of their use are provded.

P Orbital
The p orbital is a volume of space where an electron is most likely to be found. Here's what it looks like.

Periodic Table Study Guide
Learn about the periodic table of the elements. Find out about the history of the periodic table, how the elements are organized, and how to use the periodic table to predict the behavior of unfamiliar elements.

pH of Common Chemicals
Here's a table of the pH of several common chemicals. You can use the list to set up color ranges for pH indicators or simply to learn more about acids and bases.

Photosynthesis Basics - Study Guide
Photosynthesis is the name for the set of chemical reactions used by plants and other organisms to make food from sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water. Here's a look at the process and study questions to help make sure you understand the key concepts.

Qualitative Analysis - Flame Tests
The flame test is a quick low-tech method of identifying an element by the color of light it yields in a flame. Learn how to perform this test and to interpret the results.

Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals
Chemistry is mostly the study of electron interactions between atoms and molecules. Understanding the behavior of the electrons in an atom is an important part of understanding chemical reactions. Electron orbitals depended on three properties: the amount of energy, angular momentum and magnetic moment of the individual electron.

Reactions in Water or Aqueous Solution
Let's review some important types of reactions that occur in aqueous solution and take a look at the rules that are used when writing balanced equations for water reactions.

Red Cabbage pH Paper
Learn how to make your own pH indicator test strips using red cabbage. This is a fun, safe, and easy chemistry project that you can do at home.

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
Learn how to assign oxidation numbers to keep track of the distribution of electrons during a chemical reaction.

S Orbital
Take a look at the probability distrubution of the s orbital, a volume of space describing the likely location of an electron.

Salt Formation Chemistry
Learn about the chemistry behind salt formation, including neutralization and hydrolysis reactions.

Science Fair Project Help
Science fair projects are a great way to learn about experimentation, the scientific method, and science concepts. However, it can be hard to find an idea or get answers to questions once you get started. Here is a collection of resources to give your project the winning edge.

Science Laboratory Safety Signs
This is a collection of safety signs and symbols commonly seen in a science laboratory, particularly a chemistry lab.

Science Pictures
This is an image gallery of science photographs and images. Most of the images relate to chemistry, though there are many which apply to science in general or are specific to biology, physics, or medicine.

Scientific Law, Hypothesis, Theory Definitions
Words have very specific meanings in chemistry and other sciences. Learn about the difference between a scientific law, hypothesis, and theory. Examples are provided for each term.

Significant Figures in Measurements and Calculations
This article discusses the use of significant figures in taking measurements and performing calculations. Learn about significant figures, uncertainty, accuracy, precision, rounding, and truncating. Losing significant figures and effects of exact numbers are also described.

Single Bond Energies
This is a table of single bond energies in units of kJ/mol at 25°C. Use these values to predict whether a reaction will be endothermic or exothermic and to calculate change in enthalpy for gases.

Snowflake Chemistry
Here are answers to common questions about snowflakes. Learn how snow forms, what shapes snowflakes take, why snow crystals are symmetrical, whether no two snowflakes really are alike, and why snow looks white!

Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water
Here's a table of the solubility rules for common ionic solids in water, as well as an explanation of the main factors which affect solubility.

Solubility Product Constants at 25 Degrees Celsius
This is a table of the solubility product constants for some common ions in aqueous solution at 25 degrees Celsius.

Solutions, Suspensions, Colloids, and Dispersions
Learn how to distiguish between solutions, suspensions, colloids, and dispersions. Get examples of the different types of mixtures.

States of Matter
Get definitions and examples of the main states of matter: solids, liquids, gases, and plasma.

The Scientific Method
Science fair and research projects apply the scientific method. Here's an informal explanation of the scientific method and how it is used.

Timeline of Element Discovery
Use this table to look up the date an element was discovered and the name(s) of its discoverer. Links to additional element facts are provided, too.

Titration Basics - Acids Bases and Buffers
Grasp the basic chemical concepts of titration, a technique used to determine the molarity of an acid or a base.

Top Chemistry Demonstrations & Activities
This is the list of my personal favorite chemistry demonstrations and activities. They tend to involve pretty colors, fire, or ice. Some projects require adult supervision or access to a chemistry lab. Others are easy and safe enough for kids to perform.

Types of Chemical Bonds
Learn about the different types of chemical bonds and the forces that affect the way electrons are shared.

Types of Chemical Reactions
Learn about the different types of chemical reactions and get examples of the reaction types.

Types of Inorganic Chemical Reactions
There are four main categories of inorganic chemical reactions. Can you name them all? Here they are, along with examples of each type.

Unit Conversion Worksheets
Use these printable worksheets to practice unit conversions. These pdf questions and answers will test your understanding of metric-metric, metric-English, and temperature conversions.

Valences of the Elements
The valences aren't just those you see in the columns of the periodic table! Check out this chart of element valences to help determine potential chemical reactions.

What Is a Chemical Element?
Get the definition for a chemical element.

What Is a Mole and Why Are Moles Used?
No, we're not talking about the small burrowing mammal! Here's a look at a standard unit in chemistry and why it's used.

What Is Absolute Zero?
Learn about absolute zero and the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.

What Is Distillation?
Distillation is a common chemistry process used to separate materials by changing their states of matter. Learn more about how the process works and find out about different types of distillations.

Chemistry Videos
Learn chemistry and reinforce your understanding of chemistry concepts by watching these chemistry videos.

10 Basic Chemistry Facts
This is a collection of 10 fun and interesting basic chemistry facts.

How Do I Learn Chemistry?
How do I learn chemistry? If you have been asking yourself this question, then these tips and strategies are for you! Chemistry has a reputation as being a difficult subject to master, but there are steps you can take to improve your chances of success.

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