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Transition Metals

Properties of Element Groups

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Copper is one of the transition metals.

Copper is one of the transition metals.

Skatebiker, wikipedia.org
Metals | Nonmetals | Metalloids | Alkali Metals | Alkaline Earths | Transition Metals | Halogens | Noble Gases | Rare Earths | Lanthanides | Actinides

Location on the Periodic Table

The transition elements are located in groups IB to VIIIB of the periodic table.

Properties

Because they possess the properties of metals, the transition elements are also known as the transition metals. These elements are very hard, with high melting points and boiling points. Moving from left to right across the periodic table, the five d orbitals become more filled. The d electrons are loosely bound, which contributes to the high electrical conductivity and malleability of the transition elements. The transition elements have low ionization energies. They exhibit a wide range of oxidation states or positively charged forms. The positive oxidation states allow transition elements to form many different ionic and partially ionic compounds. The formation of complexes causes the d orbitals to split into two energy sublevels, which enables many of the complexes to absorb specific frequencies of light. Thus, the complexes form characteristic colored solutions and compounds. Complexation reactions sometimes enhance the relatively low solubility of some compounds.

Summary of Common Properties

  • Low ionization energies
  • Positive oxidation states
  • Very hard
  • High melting points
  • High boiling points
  • High electrical conductivity
  • Malleable
  • Five d orbitals become more filled, from left to right on periodic table
Chemistry Encyclopedia
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Properties of Transition Metals
Properties of Nonmetals

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