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Halogens

Properties of Element Groups

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This is a flask of elemental iodine vapor. Iodine is one of the halogens.

This is a flask of elemental iodine vapor. Iodine is one of the halogens.

Matias Molnar
Metals | Nonmetals | Metalloids | Alkali Metals | Alkaline Earths | Transition Metals | Halogens | Noble Gases | Rare Earths | Lanthanides | Actinides

Location on the Periodic Table

The halogens are located in Group VIIA of the periodic table, and are a particular class of nonmetals. The halogen elements are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, and ununseptium.

Properties

These reactive nonmetals have seven valence electrons. As a group, halogens exhibit highly variable physical properties. Halogens range from solid (I2) to liquid (Br2) to gaseous (F2 and Cl2) at room temperature. The chemical properties are more uniform. The halogens have very high electronegativities. Fluorine has the highest electronegativity of all elements. The halogens are particularly reactive with the alkali metals and alkaline earths, forming stable ionic crystals.

Summary of Common Properties

  • Very high electronegativities
  • Seven valence electrons (one short of a stable octet)
  • Highly reactive, especially with alkali metals and alkaline earths
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