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Nitrogen Family

Nitrogen Family - Element Group 15

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Move down the periodic table from nitrogen to find the members of the nitrogen family.

Move down the periodic table from nitrogen to find the members of the nitrogen family.

David Monniaux

The nitrogen family is element group 15 of the periodic table. Here are some facts about the nitrogen family:

  • The nitrogen family consists of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and bismuth.

     

  • Nitrogen family elements consists of atoms having 5 electrons in their outer energy level.

     

  • As you move down the nitrogen family: atomic radius increases, ionic radius increases, ionization energy decreases, and electronegativity decreases.

     

  • Nitrogen family elements often form covalent compounds, usually with the oxidation numbers +3 or +5.

     

  • Nitrogen and phosphorus are nonmetals. Arsenic and antimony are metalloids. Bismuth is a metal.

     

  • Except for nitrogen, the elements are solid at room temperature.

     

  • Except for nitrogen and bismuth, the elements exist in two or more allotropic forms.
Element facts include crystal data for the most common allotropes and data for white phosphorus.

Reference: Modern Chemistry (South Carolina). Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Harcourt Education (2009).

Nitrogen Family - Group 15 - Element Properties

  N P As Sb Bi
melting point (°C) -209.86 44.1 817 (27 atm) 630.5 271.3
boiling point (°C) -195.8 280 613 (sublimes) 1750 1560
density (g/cm3) 1.25 x 10-3 1.82 5.727 6.684 9.80
ionization energy (kJ/mol) 1402 1012 947 834 703
atomic radius (pm) 75 110 120 140 150
ionic radius (pm) 146 (N3-) 212 (P3-) -- 76 (Sb3+) 103 (Bi3+)
usual oxidation number -3, +3, +5 -3, +3, +5 +3, +5 +3, +5 +3
hardness (Mohs) none (gas) -- 3.5 3.0 2.25
crystal structure cubic (solid) cubic rhombohedral hcp rhombohedral

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