The carbon family is element group 14 of the periodic table. Here are some facts about the carbon family:
- The carbon family consists of carbon, silicon, germanium, tin and lead.
- Carbon family elements contain atoms that have 4 electrons in their outer energy level.
- As you move down the periodic table in the carbon family the atomic radius increases while ionization energy decreases.
- The carbon family consists of one nonmetal (carbon), two metalloids (silicon and germanium) and two metals (tin and lead).
- The carbon family elements have widely variable physical and chemical properties.
- The carbon family elements tend to be fairly unreactive.
- The elements tend to form covalent compounds, though tin and lead also form ionic compounds.
- Carbon family elements exist free in nature and in compounds.
Reference: Modern Chemistry (South Carolina). Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Harcourt Education (2009).
Carbon Family - Group 14 - Element Facts
|melting point (°C)||3500 (diamond)||1410||937.4||231.88||327.502|
|boiling point (°C)||4827||2355||2830||2260||1740|
|density (g/cm3)||3.51 (diamond)||2.33||5.323||7.28||11.343|
|ionization energy (kJ/mol)||1086||787||762||709||716|
|atomic radius (pm)||77||118||122||140||175|
|ionic radius (pm)||260 (C4-)||--||--||118 (Sn2+)||119 (Pb2+)|
|usual oxidation number||+3, -4||+4||+2, +4||+2, +4||+2, +3|
|hardness (Mohs)||10 (diamond)||6.5||6.0||1.5||1.5|
|crystal structure||cubic (diamond)||cubic||cubic||tetragonal||fcc|