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Carbon Family

Element Group 14 - Carbon Family Facts

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Go down the periodic table from carbon to find the elements in group 14, the carbon family.

Go down the periodic table from carbon to find the elements in group 14, the carbon family.

U.S. Geological Survey
The carbon family is element group 14 of the periodic table. Here are some facts about the carbon family:
  • The carbon family consists of carbon, silicon, germanium, tin and lead.

  • Carbon family elements contain atoms that have 4 electrons in their outer energy level.

  • As you move down the periodic table in the carbon family the atomic radius increases while ionization energy decreases.

  • The carbon family consists of one nonmetal (carbon), two metalloids (silicon and germanium) and two metals (tin and lead).
  • The carbon family elements have widely variable physical and chemical properties.

  • The carbon family elements tend to be fairly unreactive.

  • The elements tend to form covalent compounds, though tin and lead also form ionic compounds.

  • Carbon family elements exist free in nature and in compounds.

Reference: Modern Chemistry (South Carolina). Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Harcourt Education (2009).

Carbon Family - Group 14 - Element Facts

C Si Ge Sn Pb
melting point (°C) 3500 (diamond) 1410 937.4 231.88 327.502
boiling point (°C) 4827 2355 2830 2260 1740
density (g/cm3) 3.51 (diamond) 2.33 5.323 7.28 11.343
ionization energy (kJ/mol) 1086 787 762 709 716
atomic radius (pm) 77 118 122 140 175
ionic radius (pm) 260 (C4-) -- -- 118 (Sn2+) 119 (Pb2+)
usual oxidation number +3, -4 +4 +2, +4 +2, +4 +2, +3
hardness (Mohs) 10 (diamond) 6.5 6.0 1.5 1.5
crystal structure cubic (diamond) cubic cubic tetragonal fcc

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