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Antimony Facts

Chemical & Physical Properties

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Antimony is a silvery-white crystalline metal.

Antimony is a silvery-white crystalline metal. This photo is of a natural massive antimony with oxidation products from Arechuybo Mexico.

Aram Dulyan, wikipedia.org An alchemical symbol for antimony.

An alchemical symbol for antimony.

Aram Dulyan, wikipedia.org This is the electron configuration of an antimony atom.

This is the electron configuration of an antimony atom.

Periodic Table of the Elements

 

Antimony

Atomic Number: 51

Symbol: Sb

Atomic Weight: 121.760

Discovery: Antimony compounds have been known since ancient time. The metal has been known since at least the 17th century.

Electron Configuration: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p3

Word Origin: Greek anti plus monos, meaning a metal not found alone. The symbol comes from the mineral stibnite.

Properties: The melting point of antimony is 630.74°C, boiling point is 1950°C, specific gravity is 6.691 (at 20°C), with a valence of 0, -3, +3, or +5. Two allotropic forms of antimony exist: the usual stable metallic form and the amorphous gray form. Metallic antimony is extremely brittle. It is a bluish white metal with a flaky crystalline texture and metallic luster. It is not oxidized by air at room temperature. However, it will burn brilliantly when heated, releasing white Sb2O3 fumes. It is a poor heat or electrical conductor. Antimony metal has a hardness of 3 to 3.5.

Uses: Antimony is widely used in alloying to increase hardness and mechanical strength. Antimony is used in the semiconductor industry for infrared detectors, Hall-effect devices, and diodes. The metal and its compounds also used in batteries, bullets, cable sheathing, flame-proofing compounds, glass, ceramics, paints, and pottery. Tartar emetic has been used in medicine. Antimony and many of its compounds are toxic.

Sources: Antimony is found in over 100 minerals. Sometimes it occurs in native form, but it is more common as the sulfide stibnite (Sb2S3) and as the antimonides of heavy metals and as oxides.

Element Classification: Semimetallic

Density (g/cc): 6.691

Melting Point (K): 903.9

Boiling Point (K): 1908

Appearance: hard, silvery-white, brittle semi-metal

Atomic Radius (pm): 159

Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 18.4

Covalent Radius (pm): 140

Ionic Radius: 62 (+6e) 245 (-3)

Specific Heat (@20°C J/g mol): 0.205

Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 20.08

Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 195.2

Debye Temperature (K): 200.00

Pauling Negativity Number: 2.05

First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 833.3

Oxidation States: 5, 3, -2

Lattice Structure: Rhombohedral

Lattice Constant (Å): 4.510

References: Los Alamos National Laboratory (2001), Crescent Chemical Company (2001), Lange's Handbook of Chemistry (1952), CRC Handbook of Chemistry & Physics (18th Ed.)

 

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