1. Education

Electronic Structure

Get information about how electrons behave and how they are organized around atoms and ions. Learn about quantum numbers, magnetism, the Auflau Principle, the Pauli Exclusion Principle, and Hund's Rule.

Valences of the Elements
This is a table of element valences.

Electronic Configuration of the Elements
This table is a compilation of the electron configurations of the elements up through number 104. Tips for writing out stable configurations and for shorthand notation are included.

Types of Chemical Bonds
Learn about the different types of chemical bonds and the forces that affect the way electrons are shared.

Octet Rule
The octet rule states that elements gain or lose electrons to attain an electron configuration of the nearest noble gas. Here is an explanation of how that works and why elements follow the octet rule.

Photoelectric Effect
The photoelectric effect occurs when matter emits electrons upon exposure to electromagnetic radiation, such as photons of light. Here's a closer look at what the photoelectric effect is and how it works.

Millikan Oil Drop Experiment
Millikan's oil drop experiment measured the charge of the electron.

Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals
Chemistry is mostly the study of electron interactions between atoms and molecules. Understanding the behavior of the electrons in an atom is an important part of understanding chemical reactions. Electron orbitals depended on three properties: the amount of energy, angular momentum and magnetic moment of the individual electron.

Aufbau Principle and Electronic Structure
Stable atoms have as many electrons as they do protons. How do these electrons orient themselves around the nucleus? They fill their electron orbitals by the aufbau principle.

Lewis Structures or Electron Dot Structures
Learn about Lewis structures, also called electron dot structures and get step-by-step help drawing them.

Introduction to Molecular Geometry
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms within a molecule. Here's an introduction to molecular geometry with instructions for how to predict configuration and a table of VSEPR geometries.

Learn about electronegativity, the trends of electronegativity for elements in the periodic table, and how electronegativity relates to chemical bonding.

Ionization Energy
Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion in the gas state. Here's more information about what ionization energy is and what trends in ionization energy you can expect to see on the periodic table.

Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism Worked Problem
Here is a worked example problem showing how to tell whether an element is paramagnetic or diamagnetic based on its electron configuration.

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
Learn how to assign oxidation numbers to keep track of the distribution of electrons during a chemical reaction.

Angular Momentum Quantum Numbers
Learn about the origins of the orbital name abbreviations s, p, d, f used to describe the angular momentum quantum numbers.

What Do s, p, d, and f Mean?
s, p, d, and f are orbital names that stand for sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental. This summary tells more about orbitals and electronic structure.

P Orbital
The p orbital is a volume of space where an electron is most likely to be found. Here's what it looks like.

S Orbital
Take a look at the probability distrubution of the s orbital, a volume of space describing the likely location of an electron.

This is an explanation of what valence or valency means in chemistry.

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