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Get basic and advanced information on conductivity, ions, fuel cells, batteries, and electrodes. Included are electrochemistry journals and software.

Electrochemical Cells - Galvanic (Voltaic) and Electrolytic
Learn about galvanic (voltaic) and electrolytic cells. You'll also get information about anodes and cathodes and direction of electron flow in the two electrochemical cells.

Balancing Redox Reactions
Get step-by-step instructions for balancing redox reactions for conservation of mass and charge in electrochemistry.

Nernst Equation
The Nernst equation is used to calculate the voltage of an electrochemical cell or to find the concentration of one of the components of the cell. Here is a look at the Nernst equation and an example of how to apply it to solve a problem.

Electroplating is the application of electrolytic cells in which a thin layer of metal is deposited onto an electrically conductive surface. Here's a closer look at what electrochemistry is, how it works, and what metals and anodes are used.

Experimental Determination of Avogadro's Number
Did you know that Avogadro's number isn't a mathematically derived unit. The number of particles in a mole of a material is determined experimentally. This easy method uses electrochemistry to make the determination.

Battery - Diagram of Daniell Galvanic Cell
Here's a handy gif to help you illustrate the working of a galvanic cell.

Bend Water with Static Electricity
Use static electricity to bend a stream of flowing water. This is an easy science activity that illustrates how opposite electrical charges attract each other.

Chemistry Fun with Pennies
Use pennies, nails, and a few simple household ingredients to explore some of the interesting properties of metals. Clean the pennies chemically, make verdigris, and plate the nails with copper.

Copper Plating Christmas Ornament
Copper plate a holiday decoration as a Christmas ornament or for other decorative uses.

Diagram of an Electrolytic Cell
Refer to this diagram of an electrolytic cell to help explain redox reactions and electrolysis.

Fruit Battery
If you have fruit, a couple of nails, and wire then you can generate electricity to turn on a light bulb. Learn how to make a fruit battery. It's fun, safe, and easy.

Human Battery Demonstration
Make a human battery by substituting fingers for the salt bridge in a galvanic cell. You can make a human battery with one person, a group of people, or even a thousand people. This is a simple yet impressive electrochemistry demonstration.

Potato Clock - Make a Potato Battery to Power an LED Clock
A potato can function as an electrochemical cell or battery. It's fun to use a potato to power an LED clock.

Redox Reaction - Worked Chemistry Problem
This is a worked example redox reaction problem showing how to calculate volume and concentration of reactants and products using a balanced redox equation.

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
Learn how to assign oxidation numbers to keep track of the distribution of electrons during a chemical reaction.

Salt Bridge
A salt bridge connects the oxidation and reduction half-cells of a galvanic cell. See an example of salt bridge and learn more about how salt bridges work.

Silver Crystal Tree
In this simple chemistry demonstration or crystal growing project you'll grow a silver crystal tree.

Valences of the Elements
The valences aren't just those you see in the columns of the periodic table! Check out this chart of element valences to help determine potential chemical reactions.

Why Do Cold Batteries Discharge Quickly?
Learn why batteries run down more quickly in cold weather, but hold their charge longer. There are links to find out more about batteries.

Characterizes electrochemical kinetic systems. From Leslaw K. Bieniasz, Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry
Abstracts and Tables of Contents.

Online Fuel Cell Information Center
Facts about fuel cells and their potential uses. From Fuel Cells 2000, Breakthrough Technologies Institute.

Anode and Cathode
This is how to define anode and cathode and how to tell them apart.

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