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Chemistry 101

Chemistry 101 is introductory and general chemistry. Get lecture notes, study guides, lab experiments, and example problems for all areas of chemistry 101. This material is primarily at the Jr.-Sr. High School Level (grade 7-12) or first year College/University level.
  1. Acids & Bases (98)
  2. Atomic Structure (15)
  3. Atomic Weights (5)
  4. Chemical Bonding (20)
  5. Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry (20)
  6. Chemical Reactions (32)
  7. Chemistry Study Skills (6)
  8. Electronic Structure (19)
  9. Elements (41)
  10. Equilibrium (12)
  11. Gases (28)
  12. Introduction to Chemistry (14)
  13. Matter (37)
  14. Molecular & Formula Weights (13)
  15. Molecules
  16. Moles (14)
  17. Nomenclature (10)
  18. Nuclear Decay (15)
  19. Periodic Properties (26)
  20. Periodic Table (14)
  21. Solutions & Mixtures (35)
  22. Thermodynamics (41)
  23. Units & Measurement (40)

Importance of Chemistry
What is the importance of chemistry? Why would you want to learn about chemistry? Chemistry is the study of matter and its interactions with other matter and energy. Here's a look at the importance of chemistry and why you should study it.

How to Pass Chemistry
Are you taking a chemistry class? Chemistry may be challenging, but there are many things you can do to help yourself succeed. Here are some tips to help you pass chemistry.

Chemistry Study Tips
Here are some homework and study tips to help you succeed in chemistry.

Teach Yourself Chemistry
You can teach yourself general chemistry with this step-by-step introduction to the basic concepts.

Chemistry Basics - What Is Chemistry
Start learning chemistry with the basics. Learn what chemistry is, what chemists do, and why it's important to study chemistry.

What Is a Chemical?
Are you wondering what makes a chemical a chemical? Here's the answer to this frequently asked chemistry question.

How to Write a Lab Report
Lab reports are an essential part of all laboratory courses and usually a significant part of your grade. If your instructor gives you an outline for how to write a lab report, use that. Here's a format for a lab report you can use if you aren't sure what to write or need an explanation of what to include in the different parts of the report.

High School Chem
Are you confused by all the topics in high school chem class? Here is an overview of what is studied in high school chem, with links to essential chem resources and worked chem problems.

Printable Periodic Table of the Elements
Download or print these periodic tables to help work chemistry problems or to predict properties of the elements.

Printable Chemistry Worksheets
This is a collection of chemistry worksheets in pdf format. The answers to the questions are available on separate worksheets so you can fill them out and then check your work.

Chemistry 11
This is a list of Chemistry 11 or 11th Grade High School Chemistry topics.

Periodic Table of the Elements for Kids
This table was made with kids and homework in mind. It includes element groups and periods, element symbols, atomic numbers, atomic weights, and links to detailed facts for each element.

Top Ways to Fail a Chemistry Class
Avoid these mistakes to help you succeed in your chemistry class.

Chemistry 101: An Introduction and Study Tips
From your About Chemistry guide, these are tips for homework and laboratory exercises, with links to a library of chemical structures, glossary, periodic table, and additional resources.

GED Study Guide for Chemisty
One section of the GED or General Education Development Test covers science, including chemistry. This study guide reviews the concepts you can expect to appear on the test.

Top Reasons Why Students Fail Chemistry
Worried about failing chemistry? Here's a look at the main reasons why students fail. Avoiding these common problems could be a key to science class success!

Elements in the Human Body
Find out what elements are in the human body and what these elements do.

What Is Chemistry?
Here are long and short answers to this Frequently Asked Question.

Chemistry Laboratory Safety Rules
Make your chemistry laboratory experience safe by following these simple rules.

Science Fair Project Help
Science fair projects are a great way to learn about experimentation, the scientific method, and science concepts. However, it can be hard to find an idea or get answers to questions once you get started. Here is a collection of resources to give your project the winning edge.

Before You Buy a Chemistry Textbook
Asking yourself some questions can save a lot of money at the bookstore! Find out what you need to know before you purchase a chemistry textbook. The article refers to chemistry, but the tips really apply to all texts.

Chemistry Glossary
From your About Chemistry guide, this glossary includes terminology from featured articles. Additional chemistry definitions are always being added.

Chemistry Timeline
Find out who did what and when they did it. This timeline chronicles achievements in chemistry and in other disciplines (e.g., physics, mathematics) as they apply to chemistry.

Alphabetical List of Elements
Here's a list of the elements, in alphabetical order according to their IUPAC names.

Famous Chemists
This is an index of famous chemists and other scientists who made important contributions to the field of chemistry, arranged alphabetically according to the scientist's last name.

Chemistry Problems - Worked Examples
This is an ever-growing collection of worked chemistry problems. The examples are grouped according to subject matter.

Amedeo Avogadro
Looking for information about Amedeo Avogadro, Avogadro's Hypothesis, and Avogadro's Number? It's all here, including a picture of Avogadro and links to other Avogadro and History of Chemistry web sites.

Amino Acid Chirality
This is an introduction to stereoisomerism of amino acids, with Fisher projections and stereorepresentations of serine used as an example. There are links to learn more about amino acids and about chirality of other molecules.

Amino Acid Structures
These are the structures for the twenty natural amino acids, plus the general structure for an amino acid.

Boyle's Law
Here's an introduction to Boyle's Law, as well as a worked example problem and links to related resources.

Baggie Chemistry - Experiment with Chemical Reactions
Introduce students to chemical reactions and experimentation using common materials and baggies.

Balancing Redox Reactions
Get step-by-step instructions for balancing redox reactions for conservation of mass and charge in electrochemistry.

Bravais Crystal Lattices
There are 14 distinct Bravais crystal lattices. The lattices can be used to describe the geometrical symmetry of a crystal. The Bravais lattices are sometimes called space lattices.

Calculating Concentration
Do the units for solution concentration confuse you? Get definitions and examples for calculating percent composition by mass, mole fraction, molarity, molality, and normality. I've also included a bit of information on dilutions.

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates or saccharides are the most abundant class of biomolecules. Carbohydrates are used to store energy, though they serve other important functions as well. This is an overview of carbohydrate chemistry, including a look at the types of carbohydrates, their functions, and carbohydrate classification.

Chemical & Physical Changes
Find out what chemical and physical changes are, get examples, and learn how to tell them apart.

Chemical, Physical, and Nuclear Changes Quiz
Do you understand the differences between the types of changes and the concepts associated with these reactions? Here's a ten question quiz you can take to test your knowledge.

Chemical and Physical Property
Learn how to distinguish between a chemical property and a physical property of matter.

Chemical Structures Archive
From your About Chemistry Guide, these are structures (gifs) for all of the molecules from articles and facts on the About Chemistry website. Many supplemental structures are available, too. Additions are made to the archive regularly.

Chemical Reaction Orders
Learn how to classify chemical reactions using kinetics. Identify and define zero, first, second, mixed, and higher order reactions.

Chemistry How-To Guide
From your About Chemistry Guide, these are recipes for education and family fun, as well as interesting experiments and demonstrations.

Chemistry Scavenger Hunt
A chemistry scavenger hunt is an educational game where you find items that match a description. It's a great way to learn key concepts. Here's a list of chemistry scavenger hunt clues and items that match.

Chromatography with Candy and Coffee Filters
Analyze the dyes used in your favorite candies with paper chromatography using a coffee filter, colored candies, and a salt solution.

College Essentials
Science majors need items above and beyond general college supplies. Check out these top picks and compare prices online. If you wait to buy them at the college bookstore you will pay a premium!

Common Polyatomic Ions
This is a table of some of the most common polyatomic ions. Names, formulae, and charges are listed.

Compounds - Inorganic Chemicals
List of inorganic chemical compounds.

Electrochemical Cells - Galvanic (Voltaic) and Electrolytic
Learn about galvanic (voltaic) and electrolytic cells. You'll also get information about anodes and cathodes and direction of electron flow in the two electrochemical cells.

Element Atomic Number Quiz
The atomic number of an element is the same as its number of protons. The atomic number determines an element's order in the periodic table. Do you know the numbers of the first few elements? Here's your chance to test yourself, while learning some facts about the elements, too.

Electroplating
Electroplating is the application of electrolytic cells in which a thin layer of metal is deposited onto an electrically conductive surface. Here's a closer look at what electrochemistry is, how it works, and what metals and anodes are used.

Experimental Determination of Avogadro's Number
Did you know that Avogadro's number isn't a mathematically derived unit. The number of particles in a mole of a material is determined experimentally. This easy method uses electrochemistry to make the determination.

Factors that Affect Chemical Reaction Rate
Here's a list and description of the major factors that can affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Links for more detailed information are also provided.

Functional Groups - Organic Chemistry Essentials
These are the names and structures of important organic functional groups containing nitrogen or oxygen. Learn 'em, live 'em, love 'em!

Groups of Elements - Periodic Table
Elements can be categorized according to their similar properties. Here's a periodic table that organizes the elements according to groups. Click an element symbol and learn about the group to which it belongs.

Heats of Formation - Anions & Cations
This is a table of molar heats of formation for common anions and cations in aqueous solution.

History of Matches
Fire may have been around since the dawn of civilization, but matches are a fairly recent invention. Learn about the somewhat gruesome history of the chemical or friction match and how antimony and phosphorus are used to start fire.

How to Clean Laboratory Glassware
Cleaning laboratory glassware isn't as simple as washing the dishes. Here's how to wash your glassware so that you won't ruin your chemical solution, laboratory experiment, or the glass.

How Do Detergents Clean?
Learn about the chemistry behind the cleaning power of detergents.

How to Perform a Recrystallization
Recrystallization is a laboratory technique used to purify a sample based on the different solubilites of its components. Learn how to perform a recrystallization and get tips on how to avoid common problems and improve your product yield.

How to Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid
Learn how to synthesize aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, from salicyclic acid. Get information about the history of aspirin, the effects of salicylates, and see the structures of the reactants.

How to Write a Bibliography for a Science Fair Project
Learn how to cite your sources for a science fair project. See examples for books, online references, and conversations.

How to Read a Meniscus
The meniscus is the curve seen at the top of a liquid in response to its container. When you read a scale on the side of a container with a meniscus, such as a graduated cylinder or volumetric flask, it's important that the measurement accounts for the meniscus. Here's how to read a meniscus.

Incompatible Chemical Mixtures
Here's a list of chemicals that you don't want to accidentally mix, together with brief statements about the expected reactions. Use this information to avoid accidents and ensure safe storage and handling of potentially dangerous substances, both at work and at home.

Introduction to Chemistry Quiz
This multiple choice quiz tests your understanding of introductory chemistry concepts. It covers matter, chemical and physical changes, energy, endothermic and exothermic reactions, measurements, significant figures, and scientific notation.

Introduction to Spectroscopy
Learn what spectroscopy and spectra are, how spectroscopy works, and what it is used for. This article includes a list of several different spectroscopies, with brief descriptions of their characteristics.

How to Fail a Chemistry Class
Avoid these mistakes to help ensure success in your chemistry class.

Laboratory Safety Quiz
Are you a safe scientist or a menace to yourself and others in the chemistry lab? Here's a ten question quiz you can take to test yourself. It's sarcastic and maybe even a little mean, but... some accidents just shouldn't happen.

Molecular Formula and Empirical Formula
Here is a look at what the molecular formula and empirical formula are and steps for finding the molecular formula and empirical formula.

Lanthanides and Actinides - The Rare Earths
Learn about the properties of the rare earth metals. This 3-part article includes an overview of the rare earths and separate sections for the lanthanide series and actinide series.

Molecules and Moles
Learn how molecules, moles, and Avogadro's number relate to each other. This is a good introduction to the study of compounds and stoichiometry.

Laws of Chemistry
Here's a reference page that describes the major laws of chemistry.

Nomenclature for Ionic Compounds
This is a summary of the past and present naming conventions for ionic compounds. The major prefixes and suffixes are explained and examples of their use are provded.

Monomers and Polymers
Monomers are the building blocks of more complex molecules, called polymers. Polymers consist of repeating molecular units which usually are joined by covalent bonds. Here is a closer look at the chemistry of monomers and polymers.

Newton's Laws of Motion
Newton's Laws of Motion help us to understand how objects behave when they are standing still, when they are moving, and when forces act upon them. There are three laws of motion. Here is a description of Newton's Laws of Motion and a summary of what they mean.

Nuclear Reactions - Mass - Energy Relations
Learn how to calculate the energy change in a nuclear reaction, such as radioactive decay.

Periodic Properties of Elements
The properties of the elements exhibit periodicity. Learn how to use the periodic table to predict the trends in atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity.

Nucleic Acid Facts
If you're taking general chemistry, organic, or biochemistry, you'll need to understand some basic concepts about nucleic acids, the polymers used to code the genetic information of organisms. Here are some quick nucleic acid facts to get you started.

Periodic Table Quiz
Test your knowledge of the elements with this fun, quick quiz!

Timeline of Element Discovery
Use this table to look up the date an element was discovered and the name(s) of its discoverer. Links to additional element facts are provided, too.

What Is a Mole and Why Are Moles Used?
No, we're not talking about the small burrowing mammal! Here's a look at a standard unit in chemistry and why it's used.

Phases & Phase Changes Quiz
Take this multiple choice quiz to test your understanding of the states of matter.

The Scientific Method
Science fair and research projects apply the scientific method. Here's an informal explanation of the scientific method and how it is used.

Top Chemistry Projects for Bored Kids
Are you searching for something fun and educational to do that suitable for kids? Here are some great chemistry activities and projects to get you started. They are safe and use easy-to-find materials.

What Is a Chemical Element?
Get the definition for a chemical element.

Photosynthesis Basics - Study Guide
Photosynthesis is the name for the set of chemical reactions used by plants and other organisms to make food from sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water. Here's a look at the process and study questions to help make sure you understand the key concepts.

Polymer Examples
Do you need some examples of polymers? Here is a list of materials that are polymers, plus some examples of materials that are not polymers.

Protein and Polypeptide Structure
This article describes the four levels of protein and polypeptide structure, with examples and links for additional reading.

What Are Some Careers in Chemistry?
Chemistry isn't just for chemists! Here's a nice long list of chemistry-related careers, along with a discussion on how your degree impacts your employment options.

Qualitative Analysis - Bead Tests
The borax, microcosmic salt, or sodium carbonate bead test may be used to help identify unknown metals. Learn how to perform and interpret the results of this handy analytical test.

Qualitative Analysis - Flame Tests
The flame test is a quick low-tech method of identifying an element by the color of light it yields in a flame. Learn how to perform this test and to interpret the results.

Reactions in Water or Aqueous Solution
Let's review some important types of reactions that occur in aqueous solution and take a look at the rules that are used when writing balanced equations for water reactions.

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
Learn how to assign oxidation numbers to keep track of the distribution of electrons during a chemical reaction.

Science Fair Project Quiz
Get information about what makes a good science fair project, then test your understanding with this multiple choice quiz.

Science Laboratory Safety Signs
This is a collection of safety signs and symbols commonly seen in a science laboratory, particularly a chemistry lab.

Salt Formation Chemistry
Learn about the chemistry behind salt formation, including neutralization and hydrolysis reactions.

Science Pictures
This is an image gallery of science photographs and images. Most of the images relate to chemistry, though there are many which apply to science in general or are specific to biology, physics, or medicine.

Scientific Law, Hypothesis, Theory Definitions
Words have very specific meanings in chemistry and other sciences. Learn about the difference between a scientific law, hypothesis, and theory. Examples are provided for each term.

Scientific Method Quiz
Do you really understand what the scientific method is and how to apply it? Here's a ten question multiple choice quiz you can take to test your knowledge.

Single Bond Energies
This is a table of single bond energies in units of kJ/mol at 25°C. Use these values to predict whether a reaction will be endothermic or exothermic and to calculate change in enthalpy for gases.

Successful Science Fair Projects
Get help finding a subject, preparing a hypothesis, writing the report, and making a presentation for a science fair project. This guide is suitable for grade school through university level.

Solubility Product Constants at 25 Degrees Celsius
This is a table of the solubility product constants for some common ions in aqueous solution at 25 degrees Celsius.

Standard State Conditions
Values of thermodynamic quantities are commonly expressed for standard state conditions, so it is a good idea to understand what the standard state conditions are.

States of Matter
Get definitions and examples of the main states of matter: solids, liquids, gases, and plasma.

Top Chemistry Sets and Kits
There are some truly exceptional chemistry sets out right now! Many of these chemistry kits introduce fundamental concepts through fun themes, such as 'slime' or 'glowing chemistry' or 'edible chemistry', while other sets are safer versions of the standard chemistry sets.

Types of Inorganic Chemical Reactions
There are four main categories of inorganic chemical reactions. Can you name them all? Here they are, along with examples of each type.

Types of Chemical Bonds
Learn about the different types of chemical bonds and the forces that affect the way electrons are shared.

Types of Chemical Reactions
Learn about the different types of chemical reactions and get examples of the reaction types.

Using Material Safety Data Sheets
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) aren't just for chemists! From your About Chemistry Guide, this tutorial for the non-technical consumer defines MSDSs, describes why you should know how to use them, tells how to find them, and outlines typical uses. Links to related topics are included.

What Is Distillation?
Distillation is a common chemistry process used to separate materials by changing their states of matter. Learn more about how the process works and find out about different types of distillations.

Intensive and Extensive Properties
Intensive propertes and extensive properties are types of physical properties of matters. Here's a look at what intensive and extensive properties...

Mass and Measurement Chemistry
A student's first exposure to chemistry involves concepts in mass, units and measurements. This study guide covers the most important topics a new chemistry student needs to understand.

What Is the Importance of Chemistry in Everyday Life?
Have you ever wondered about the importance of chemistry in everyday life? This is a question you may ask yourself if you're taking chemistry. Otherwise, finding an answer is one of the most common chemistry homework assignments. Here's a look at why chemistry is important.

10 Things You Need To Know About Chemistry
If you're new to the science of chemistry, there are 10 things you need to know. Once you understand these basic facts, you'll be on your way to understanding chemistry and performing experiments.

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