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Baking Soda & Vinegar Chemical Volcano

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How a Baking Soda & Vinegar Volcano Works
The baking soda and vinegar volcano erupts because of an acid-base reaction:

baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) + vinegar (acetic acid) → carbon dioxide + water + sodium ion + acetate ion

NaHCO3(s) + CH3COOH(l) → CO2(g) + H2O(l) + Na+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq)

where s = solid, l = liquid, g = gas, aq = aqueous or in solution

Breaking it down:

NaHCO3 → Na+(aq) + HCO3-(aq)
CH3COOH → H+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq)

H+ + HCO3- → H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
H2CO3 → H2O + CO2

Acetic acid (a weak acid) reacts with and neutralizes sodium bicarbonate (a base). The carbon dioxide that is given off is a gas. Carbon dioxide is responsible for the fizzing and bubbling during the 'eruption'.

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