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Chemical Bonding

Learn about Coulomb's law, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, electron dot structures, and Van der Waals forces.

Types of Chemical Bonds
Learn about the different types of chemical bonds and the forces that affect the way electrons are shared.

Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Learn to distinguish between ionic and covalent bonds, and determine whether a bond will be polar or nonpolar.

Bonds & Compounds Quiz
This ten question multiple-choice quiz will test your understanding of the types of chemical bonds, how electrons are transferred between elements in a compound, and how compounds form.

Lewis Structures or Electron Dot Structures
Learn about Lewis structures, also called electron dot structures and get step-by-step help drawing them.

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
Learn how to assign oxidation numbers to keep track of the distribution of electrons during a chemical reaction.

Valences of the Elements
The valences aren't just those you see in the columns of the periodic table! Check out this chart of element valences to help determine potential chemical reactions.

Learn about electronegativity, the trends of electronegativity for elements in the periodic table, and how electronegativity relates to chemical bonding.

Electronegativity and Bond Polarity Example Problem
This example problem demonstrates how to use electronegativity to determine bond polarity and whether or not a bond is more covalent or more ionic.

Exceptions to the Octet Rule
The octet rule is used to determine how representative atoms covalently bond to each other by sharing valence electrons to fill eight outer shell electrons. This rule seems to be made to be broken. This article outlines the exceptions of Lewis' octet rule.

How to Draw A Lewis Structure
Drawing Lewis structures can be a straightforward process if the proper steps are followed. These instructions lists the steps needed to draw a Lewis structurefor a molecules.

Lewis Structure Example Problem
This example problem shows how to draw a Lewis dot structure of a formaldehyde molecule.

How to Draw a Lewis Structure
Lewis dot structures are useful to predict the geometry of a molecule. Sometimes, one of the atoms in the molecule does not follow the octet rule for arranging electron pairs around an atom. This example problem shows the steps needed to draw a structure where one atom violates the octet rule.

Formal Charge Example Problem
Resonance structures are all the possible Lewis structures for a molecule. Formal charge is a technique to identify which resonance structure is the more correct structure. The most correct Lewis structure will be the structure where the formal charges are evenly distributed throughout the molecule.

Examples of Ionic Bonds
Here are examples of ionic bonds and ionic compounds.

Covalent Bond Examples
These are examples of covalent bonds and covalent compounds.

Compounds with Ionic and Covalent Bonds
Some compounds contain both ionic and covalent bonds. Here are examples of compounds that exhibit both types of chemical bonding.

Electronegativity and Ionic Bond Example Problem
This example chemistry problem shows how to determine whether or not a chemical bond s ionic based on the electronegativity values of the elements participating in the bond.

Element Charges Chart
This is a chart of the most common charges for atoms of the chemical elements.

Is Energy Released When Chemical Bonds Are Broken or Formed?
Learn whether energy is released when chemical bonds are formed or when they are broken and how this relates to whether a chemical reaction absorbs or releases energy.

Hydrogen Bond Examples
Learn what hydrogen bonds are and get examples of molecules that exhibit hydrogen bonding.

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