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Chemistry Charts & Tables

Find the periodic table, valences of the elements, flame test colors, ion names, and more. All of the chemistry tables for the About Chemistry site are listed here.

Printable Periodic Table of the Elements
Download or print these periodic tables to help work chemistry problems or to predict properties of the elements.

Element List
Here's a list of chemical elements ordered by increasing atomic number. The names and element symbols are provided.

Alloys List
This is an alphabetical list of alloys grouped according to the base metal of the alloy.

Common Anions
An anion is an ion which has a negative charge. This is a table listing common anions and their formulas.

Heats of Formation Table
Heat of formation values are used to determine the energy released or absorbed in a reaction. This table contains heats of formation for several common cations and anions.

Single Bond Energies Table
Bond Energies are used to determine whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic. This table has bond energies for single bonds between ten common gaseous elements.

Periodic Table of the Elements
This handy table is from your About Guide. Check back often for additional facts and figures.

Metric Units - Base Units
The metric system or SI (from Le Système International d'Unités.) is based on seven base units. These units describe the basic properties on which all other measurements are based.

Metric Unit Prefixes
Metric units of measurement are all based on units of ten. Here is a list of the most common metric unit prefixes.

-ology List of Sciences
An -ology is a discipline of study, as indicated by having the -ology suffix. This is a list of science ologies.

Acids and Bases - Weak Acids
A useful table of Ka and pKa values of common weak acids and their formulas.

Alfred B. Nobel Prizes in Chemistry
This is a list of all of the Nobel laureates in Chemistry. The year, winner name(s), country, and research are included. Links to additional information on the laureates and Nobel foundation are also provided.

Alphabetical List of Elements
Here's a list of the elements, in alphabetical order according to their IUPAC names.

Area, Perimeter & Volume Formulas
Perimeter, surface area and volume formulas are used for many chemistry calculations. You may need to find surface area and volume to determine density and concentration, for example. While it's a good idea to memorize these formulas, here a list of formulas to use as a handy reference.

Atomic Weights of the Elements
This is the list of the atomic weights of the elements (2007 IUPAC-accepted values). Elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number.

Bravais Crystal Lattices
There are 14 distinct Bravais crystal lattices. The lattices can be used to describe the geometrical symmetry of a crystal. The Bravais lattices are sometimes called space lattices.

Chemical Structures Archive
From your A0out Chemistry Guide, these are structures (gifs) for all of the molecules from articles and facts on the About Chemistry website. Many supplemental structures are available, too. Additions are made to the archive regularly.

Chemistry Glossary
From your About Chemistry guide, this glossary includes terminology from featured articles. Additional chemistry definitions are always being added.

Chemistry How-To Guide
From your About Chemistry Guide, these are recipes for education and family fun, as well as interesting experiments and demonstrations.

Chemistry of Firework Colors
Fireworks combine art and science. This article focuses on the chemistry behind firework colors, including the mechanisms of color production and a table listing colorants. There are links to websites about fireworks - some with instructions for making your own!

Chemistry Problems - Worked Examples
This is an ever-growing collection of worked chemistry problems. The examples are grouped according to subject matter.

Chemistry Timeline
Find out who did what and when they did it. This timeline chronicles achievements in chemistry and in other disciplines (e.g., physics, mathematics) as they apply to chemistry.

Colored Glass Chemistry
Have you ever wondered how glass is colored? Here's a table of common colorants and a description of processes used to color glass.

Common Cations
This is a table listing the most common cations. The name, charge and formula of many common cations is listed.

Common Polyatomic Ions
This is a table of some of the most common polyatomic ions. Names, formulae, and charges are listed.

Compounds - Inorganic Chemicals
List of inorganic chemical compounds.

Constants, Prefixes, Conversion Factors
This is a set of tables with some useful physical constants, conversion factors, and unit prefixes. They are used in many calculations in chemistry, as well as in physics and other sciences.

Crystal Types - Shapes & Structures
Let's take a look at the two main ways to categorize crystal types. I've described the major crystal structures (e.g., triclinic, hexagonal) and how crystals are classified by their properties (e.g., ionic, covalent) and provided links so that you can see examples of crystal types and learn more about crystallography.

Drugs from Plants
This is a table listing many of the pharmaceuticals that are derived from plants, including the names of the drugs, their actions, plant sources, and the common names of the plants.

Electronic Configuration of the Elements
This table is a compilation of the electron configurations of the elements up through number 104. Tips for writing out stable configurations and for shorthand notation are included.

Element Symbols
It's easier to navigate the periodic table and write chemical equations and formulae once you know the symbols for the elements. Here's an alphabetical list of element symbols with corresponding element names.

Element Types - Chemistry of Groups
Learn the locations of element types on the periodic table and get summaries of the defining characteristics of element groups, such as alkaline earths, noble gases, halogens, etc.

Elements in Fireworks
Learn about the functions of the chemical elements in fireworks.

Elements in the Human Body
Find out what elements are in the human body and what these elements do.

Elements in the Sun
You probably know the sun consists mainly of hydrogen and helium. Can you name the other elements found in our closest star?

Elements Listed by Density
See the order of the chemical elements according to their density (mass per unit volume), from least dense to most dense.

Elements Named for People - Element Eponyms
Alphabetical list of the chemical elements named after people.

Famous Chemists
This is an index of famous chemists and other scientists who made important contributions to the field of chemistry, arranged alphabetically according to the scientist's last name.

Firework Periodic Table
Use this special periodic table to find out what elements are found in fireworks and how they are used. Just click on an element to learn more.

Food Additives
This is a list of common food additives and a description of their uses.

Formulas of Common Acids & Bases
Here are the names and formulas of some of the common acids and bases. Learn how to apply prefixes and suffixes to name the acids and bases.

Functional Groups - Organic Chemistry Essentials
These are the names and structures of important organic functional groups containing nitrogen or oxygen. Learn 'em, live 'em, love 'em!

Gemstone List
This alphabetical list of gemstones includes the mineral names of the gemstones as well as links to photos of the gems.

Gold Alloys
None of the gold used in jewelry is pure gold. Some gold isn't even 'gold'-colored (e.g., white gold). The different colors are due to the presence of other metals alloyed with the gold. This table gives common compositions of the different colors of gold.

Greek Alphabet
The Greek Alphabet is used extensively in science and mathematics to represent variables and symbols. This table lists all twenty four Greek letters in upper and lower case. Learning the names of these letters is easy and you may be surprised to find you already know them.

Groups of Elements - Periodic Table
Elements can be categorized according to their similar properties. Here's a periodic table that organizes the elements according to groups. Click an element symbol and learn about the group to which it belongs.

Heats of Formation - Anions & Cations
This is a table of molar heats of formation for common anions and cations in aqueous solution.

Home and Garden pH Indicators
Here's a list of common household substances and garden plants that can be used as pH indicators. Many of the active molecules, expected color changes, and pH ranges are listed.

HTML Codes - Greek Letters
Here is a table of HTML codes for Greek letters used when creating web content for science and mathematics.

HTML Codes - Mathematical Symbols
A table of commonly used mathematical symbols used in creating html web content for science and mathematics.

HTML Codes - Variables and Scientific Symbols
Here is a table of commonly used symbols used in creating html web content for science and mathematics.

Incompatible Chemical Mixtures
Here's a list of chemicals that you don't want to accidentally mix, together with brief statements about the expected reactions. Use this information to avoid accidents and ensure safe storage and handling of potentially dangerous substances, both at work and at home.

Introduction to Spectroscopy
Learn what spectroscopy and spectra are, how spectroscopy works, and what it is used for. This article includes a list of several different spectroscopies, with brief descriptions of their characteristics.

Lanthanides and Actinides - The Rare Earths
Learn about the properties of the rare earth metals. This 3-part article includes an overview of the rare earths and separate sections for the lanthanide series and actinide series.

Laws of Chemistry
Here's a reference page that describes the major laws of chemistry.

Melting Snow & Ice with Salt
You know salt is sprinkled on roads and sidewalks to melt ice and prevent it from refreezing, but do you know how it works? Learn about freezing point depression and colligative properties and find out about the pros and cons of several de-icers.

Metal Activity Series
The activity series of metals is an empirical tool used to predict products and reactivity of metals with water and acids in replacement reactions and ore extraction.

Metric Units - Derived Metric Units
Many metric units used in science have specialized names for the values they represent. They are considered derived units and can still be reduced to factors of the seven base units. This table lists many of these units and their corresponding base unit values.

Nomenclature for Ionic Compounds
This is a summary of the past and present naming conventions for ionic compounds. The major prefixes and suffixes are explained and examples of their use are provded.

Periodic Table of the Elements for Kids
This table was made with kids and homework in mind. It includes element groups and periods, element symbols, atomic numbers, atomic weights, and links to detailed facts for each element.

pH of Common Chemicals
Here's a table of the pH of several common chemicals. You can use the list to set up color ranges for pH indicators or simply to learn more about acids and bases.

Qualitative Analysis - Bead Tests
The borax, microcosmic salt, or sodium carbonate bead test may be used to help identify unknown metals. Learn how to perform and interpret the results of this handy analytical test.

Qualitative Analysis - Flame Tests
The flame test is a quick low-tech method of identifying an element by the color of light it yields in a flame. Learn how to perform this test and to interpret the results.

Rock Tumbler Instructions
Here are instructions for tumbling rocks using a rotary drum tumbler and a vibratory tumbler, as well as instructions for polishing jewelry in a rock tumbler. Helpful tips are included for improving the polish and troubleshooting problems.

Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
Learn how to assign oxidation numbers to keep track of the distribution of electrons during a chemical reaction.

Science Laboratory Safety Signs
This is a collection of safety signs and symbols commonly seen in a science laboratory, particularly a chemistry lab.

Single Bond Energies
This is a table of single bond energies in units of kJ/mol at 25°C. Use these values to predict whether a reaction will be endothermic or exothermic and to calculate change in enthalpy for gases.

Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water
Here's a table of the solubility rules for common ionic solids in water, as well as an explanation of the main factors which affect solubility.

Solubility Product Constants at 25 Degrees Celsius
This is a table of the solubility product constants for some common ions in aqueous solution at 25 degrees Celsius.

Table of Physical Constants
Need a value for a fundamental physical constant? This handy reference table contains commonly used physical constants used in chemistry.

Tattoo Ink Chemistry
Tattoo inks aren't regulated by the US FDA, so what you don't know can hurt you. This 3-part article examines the pigments, carriers, and other chemistry-related issues concerning tattoo inks and their toxicity. Instructions for making your own tattoo ink are provided.

Timeline of Element Discovery
Use this table to look up the date an element was discovered and the name(s) of its discoverer. Links to additional element facts are provided, too.

Valences of the Elements
The valences aren't just those you see in the columns of the periodic table! Check out this chart of element valences to help determine potential chemical reactions.

What Are the Elements in the Human Body?
Do you know the chemical composition of the human body? Here's the list of elements, given in percentage according to weight.

What Materials Glow Under a Black or Ultraviolet Light?
Black lights emit ultraviolet radiation, giving certain materials an eerie glow. Which materials? You can do a little experimental research or you can check out this list!

List of Common Polyatomic Ions
This is a list of some of the most common polyatomic ions. It is worth committing them to memory, including their molecular formulas and ionic charge.

Activity Series of Metals
The activity series of metals is an empirical tool used to predict products and reactivity of metals with water and acids in replacement reactions and ore extraction.

Common Oxoacid Compounds
Oxoacids are acids that contain an oxygen atom. They dissociate in solution by losing a hydrogen atom bonded to one of the oxygen atoms. This table lists common oxoacids and their associated anions.

Chemical Composition of the Earth's Crust
This is a table that shows the elemental chemical composition of the Earth's crust.

Compounds in the Earth's Crust
This table shows the chemical composition or abundance of chemical compounds in the Earth's crust.

Table of Common Standard Reduction Potentials
This table is an alphabetical listing of common reduction half-reactions and their standard reduction potentials.

List of Radioactive Elements
This is a list or table of elements that are radioactive. This list has the element name, most stable isotope and half-life of most stable isotope.

Table of Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity
This is a table of electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity of several materials.

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