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Atomic & Molecular Structure

Find information about orbitals and the overall organization of atoms. Atomic and molecular orbitals and bonding are discussed. Travel from proton and electron fundamentals to the quantum theory.

Atoms and Atomic Theory - Study Guide
Get essential facts about atoms and the basics of atomic theory, work problems to test your skills, then take a quiz to make sure you understand the concepts.

Atom Basics Quiz
Do you understand the basic concepts of atomic theory? Do you have your protons, electrons, and neutrons all sorted out? Here's a ten question multiple choice quiz to test your knowledge.

Atomic Structure Quiz
This ten question multiple choice quiz tests your comprehension of the electric nature of atoms, components of atomic structure, oxidation numbers, valence, quantum numbers, electron configuration, and Lewis dot structures.

Atomic Structure & Periodic Table Quiz
Test your understanding of atomic structure and the periodic table with this 10-question multiple choice quiz. Use the atomic structure and periodic table quiz to help yourself study for the AP chemistry exam or a first year college chemistry test.

Basic Model of the Atom
Are you confused about atoms, elements, protons, neutrons, electrons, isotopes, and ions? Here's a basic look at the model of the atom. It's a great overview for kids or anyone looking to grasp the essentials of atomic theory.

What Are Some Examples of Atoms?
Atoms are fundamental units of matter that cannot be broken down using any chemical means. Here are some examples of atoms.

Aufbau Principle and Electronic Structure
Stable atoms have as many electrons as they do protons. How do these electrons orient themselves around the nucleus? They fill their electron orbitals by the aufbau principle.

Bohr Model of the Atom
The Bohr Model has an atom consisting of a small, positively-charged nucleus orbited by negatively-charged electrons. Here's a closer look at the Bohr Model, which is sometimes called the Rutherford-Bohr Model.

Bonds & Compounds Quiz
This ten question multiple-choice quiz will test your understanding of the types of chemical bonds, how electrons are transferred between elements in a compound, and how compounds form.

Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals
Chemistry is mostly the study of electron interactions between atoms and molecules. Understanding the behavior of the electrons in an atom is an important part of understanding chemical reactions. Electron orbitals depended on three properties: the amount of energy, angular momentum and magnetic moment of the individual electron.

What Is a Chemical Element?
Get the definition for a chemical element.

Electronic Configuration of the Elements
This table is a compilation of the electron configurations of the elements up through number 104. Tips for writing out stable configurations and for shorthand notation are included.

Introduction to Molecular Geometry
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms within a molecule. Here's an introduction to molecular geometry with instructions for how to predict configuration and a table of VSEPR geometries.

Lewis Structures or Electron Dot Structures
Learn about Lewis structures, also called electron dot structures and get step-by-step help drawing them.

Molecules and Moles
Learn about molecules, moles, and Avogadro's number.

Monomers and Polymers
Monomers are the building blocks of more complex molecules, called polymers. Polymers consist of repeating molecular units which usually are joined by covalent bonds. Here is a closer look at the chemistry of monomers and polymers.

Ionic & Covalent Bonds
Learn to distinguish between ionic and covalent bonds, and determine whether a bond will be polar or nonpolar.

Types of Chemical Bonds
Learn about the different types of chemical bonds and the forces that affect the way electrons are shared.

Ions, Isotopes, Atoms Quiz
If you're given the nuclear symbol for an element, can you identify how many protons and neutrons it has? If you see an ion symbol, do you know how many electrons are present? Here's your chance to test yourself.

P Orbital
The p orbital is a volume of space where an electron is most likely to be found. Here's what it looks like.

S Orbital
Take a look at the probability distrubution of the s orbital, a volume of space describing the likely location of an electron.

VSEPR Molecular Geometry Configurations
These are the molecular geometry configurations predicted using VSEPR theory or Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory.

Atomic and Molecular Orbitals Page
Illustrating hydrogen atoms and some small molecules. FromW. R. Salzman, University of Arizona.

Molecular Conformations in Biological Molecules
Structures of protein molecules. From Robert M. Hanson, St. Olaf College.

Molecules and Crystal Structures Page
Moveable molecules using RasMol plug-in. From W. R. Salzman,University of Arizona.

Particle Adventure
Required reading for understanding the Standard Model.

Shapes of Molecules
Lewis electronic structure diagrams. From Liina Ladon, Towson University.

Structure of the Atom
Modeling atomic structures. From the MathMol Hypermedia Textbook.

Sub-Atomic Zoo
Fundamental subatomic particles of nature. From Kelley L. Ross.

Theory of Atoms in Molecules
Using quantum mechanics to predict chemical structure. From Richard F. W. Bader, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.

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