Fluorescent molecules tend to have rigid structures and delocalized electrons. Examples of common materials that contain fluorescent molecules include:
- White Paper
White paper is treated with fluorescent compounds to help it appear brighter and therefore whiter. Sometimes forgery of historical documents can be detected by placing them under a black light to see whether or not they fluoresce. White paper made post-1950 contains fluorescent chemicals while older paper doesn't.
- Petroleum Jelly
Petroleum jelly, such as Vaseline, glows a bright blue color under a fluorescent light.
- US $20 Bill
Modern US $20 bills contain a security strip near one edge that glows bright green under a black light.
- Tonic Water
The bitter flavoring of tonic water is due to the presence of quinine, which glows blue-white when placed under a black light.
- Body Fluids
Many body fluids contain fluorescent molecules. Forensic scientists use ultraviolet lights at crime scenes to find blood, urine, or semen (all fluorescent).
Vitamin A and the B vitamins thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin are strongly fluorescent. Try crushing a vitamin B-12 tablet and dissolving it in vinegar. The solution will glow bright yellow under under a black light.
Chlorophyll makes plants green, but it fluoresces a blood red color. Grind some spinach or swiss chard in a small amount of alcohol (e.g., vodka or everclear) and pour it through a coffee filter to get chlorophyll extract (you keep the part that stays on the filter, not the liquid). You can see the red glow using a black light or even a strong fluorescent bulb, such as an overhead projector lamp, which (you guessed it) gives off ultraviolet light.
Manufacturers purposely include fluorescent additives in antifreeze fluid so that black lights can be used to find antifreeze splashes to help investigators reconstruct automobile accident scenes.
- Laundry Detergents
Some of the whiteners in detergent work by making your clothing a bit fluorescent. Even though clothing is rinsed after washing, residues on white clothing cause it to glow bluish-white under a black light. Blueing agents and softening agents often contain fluorescent dyes, too. The presence of these molecules sometimes causes white clothing to appear blue in photographs.
- Other Cleaners
Examples of other types of cleaners that glow under black light include Irish Spring™ soap and Mr. Clean™.
- Emperor Scorpion
The emperor scorpion normally is dark brown or black, but it glows a bright blue-green when exposed to black light.
- Tooth Whiteners
Whiteners and some enamels contain compounds that glow blue to keep teeth from appearing yellow.
- Postage Stamps
Stamps are printed with inks that contain fluorescent dyes. However, the US stamps that I checked (printed 2008) did not glow.
If you have a jellyfish handy, see what it looks like under a black light in a darkened room. Some of the proteins within a jellyfish are intensely fluorescent.
- Some Minerals and Gems
Fluorescent rocks include fluorite, calcite, gypsum, ruby, talc, opal, agate, quartz, and amber. Minerals and gemstones are most commonly made fluorescent or phosphorescent due to the presence of impurities. The Hope Diamond, which is blue, phosphoresces red for several seconds after exposure to shortwave ultraviolet light.
- Banana Spots
Who knew? Shine a black light on a ripe banana with spots. Check out the area around the spots.
You may wish to browse the Black Light Photo Gallery to see more examples of materials that glow under a black light.